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163 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
modified sweat glands (cuboidal epithelium) in lateral parts of external auditory meatus
ceruminous glands
constituents of cerumin
(1) apocrine secretions from ceruminous glands
(2) sebaceous glands (associated with hair follicles)
(3) desquamated skin cells
type of cartillage found in the external ear (auricle)
elastic
type of epithelium that lines that middle ear
low cuboidal
what type of epithelium is respiratory epithelium?
pseudostratified columnar with cilia and goblet cells
what is the embryological origin of the delicate membranes that suspend the membranous labyrinth within the bony labyrinth?
ectoderm-derived neuroepithelium
piriform-shaped hair cells with a rounded base and narrow neck; surrounded by an afferent nerve "chalice" and a few efferent nerve endings
Type I hair cells
cylindrical-shaped hair cells with afferent and efferent bouton nerve endings synapsing basally
Type II hair cells
the bending of stereocilia away from the kinocilium on a Type I or Type II hair cells has what type of effect on polarity of the receptor cell?
hyperpolarizing
the reticular membrane of the cochlear duct is formed by processes from this cell type
outer phalangeal cells
sounds of this frequency cause maximal displacement of the spiral membrane where the spiral membrane is thinnest and the outer row of hair cells has three ranks
high frequency sounds
four unique features of parakeratinized epithelium (vs. keratinized)
(1) superficial cells do not lose their nuclei
(2) cytoplasm of the superficial cells does not stain intensely eosinophilic
(3) no stratum granulosum
(4) it is thicker
(5) pyknotic nuclei that remain until cells exfoliate
sebaceous glands just lateral to the corner of the mouth (not associated with a hair follicle)
Fordyce spots
places where masticatory mucosa is found
gingiva (gums) and hard palate
places where lining mucosa can be found
lips, cheeks, inferior of tongue, soft palate, floor of mouth, alveolar mucosal surface
two reasons why the lips look red
(1) thin epithelium with many interdigitations of Rete Ridges (epidermis) and dermal papilla full of CT
(2) CT contains lots of BV
places where specialized mucosa can be found
dorsum of tongue
glands that empty their serous secretions into the moats surrounding circumvallate papillae
von Ebner's glands
enzyme contained in serous secretions of von Ebner's glands
lipase
three types of cells found in taste buds
(1) neuroepithelial (sensory)
(2) supporting
(3) basal
the last component of the conducting airway
terminal bronchioles
five cell types that comprise respiratory epithelium
(1) ciliated cells
(2) goblet cells
(3) brush cells (V)
(4) basal cells
(5) small granule cells
why is the olfactory mucosa a yellowish-brown color in life?
due to presence of lipofuscin granules in support cells of the epithelium and associated olfactory (Bowman's) glands
branched tubuloacinar glands found in the olfactory mucosa
olfactory or Bowman's glands
distinct layers of the trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi
(1) mucosa
(2) submucosa
(3) C-shaped cartillagenous rings (+ trachealis)
(4) adventitia
which layer of the trachea/extrapulmonary bronchi contains the largest blood vessels, nerves, and lymphatics?
adventitia
two things that distinguish the mucosa from the submucosa of the trachea
(1) elastic lamina
(2) presence of seromucous glands in the submucosa
what happens to the frequency of ciliated and goblet cells within the respiratory mucosa among smokers?
(1) ciliated cells decrease
(2) goblet cells increase
What are Kulchitsky cells?
Small granule (APUD) cells in the tracheal epithelium
Two things that distinguish an intrapulmonary bronchus from an extrapulmonary bronchus
(1) presence of a smooth muscle layer between the mucosa and submucosa
(2) irregular placement of hyaline cartillage (i.e., no-longer C-shaped rings)
Two features that distinguish a bronchiole from a bronchus
(1) absence of cartillage
(2) absence of glands in the submucosal layer
What do Clara cells look like?
(1) cuboidal/dome-shaped
(2) non-ciliated
Where are Clara cells located?
In the epithelium of the smallest conducting bronchioles (terminal bronchioles) and increase in number as you move from the conducting to the respiratory epithelium
What do Clara cells do?
Secrete a lipoprotein that prevents luminal adhesion as well as CC16
epithelium found in the large-diameter bronchioles
simple columnar with cilia
epithelium found in the terminal bronchioles
simple cuboidal (due to Clara cells, which have no cilia + some ciliated cells)
the largest possible size of a bronchiole (approximately)
1 mm
openings in alveolar septa that shunt air to otherwise blocked alveoli during pathological states such as obstructive lung disease
alveolar pores
where is the last place along the airflow pathway you might see a goblet cell
terminal bronchiole
stacks of parallel membrane lamella in Type II pneumocytes
lamellar bodies
what is kelly's favorite activity?
snuggling/having sex
what is kelly's biggest weakness?
yuriy
Where are Brunner's glands?
Duodenum, where they secrete alkaline phosphatase, HCO3-, and water to neutralize gastric acid
what layers, generally found in the GI tract, are not found in the urinary tract?
(1) muscularis mucosa
(2) submucosa
distinguishing feature of the prostatic urethra
(1) transitional epithelium
distinguishing features of the membranous urethra
(1) pseudostratified or stratified columnar
(2) surrounded by skeletal muscle
distinguishing features of the penile urethra
(1) pseudostratified columnar epithelium
(2) bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands or mucous-secreting urethral (Littre) glands
orientation of the muscle layers in the (upper 2/3rds of the ureter) ureter
(1) inner longitudinal
(2) outer circular layers
embryological origin of the trigone of the bladder
mesonephric ducts
mechanism of intercellular communication involved in the secretion of somatostatin to inhibit insulin secretion by cells in the same islet
paracrine secretion
class of hormones that always travels in the bloodstream associated with a binding protein
steroids
which organs synthesize and secrete steroid hormones?
(1) gonads
(2) adrenal cortex
the hormones secreted by the anterior and posterior pituirary are of this class
peptide hormones
how do cells amplify signals from catecholamine binding?
adenylyl cyclase/cAMP
how do cells amplify signals from insulin/EGF binding?
tyrosine kinase
how do cells amplify signals from oxytocin/GnRH binding?
phosphatidylinositol system
how do cells amplify signals from neurotransmitter binding?
by activating ion channels
types of hormones that readily penetrate plasma and nuclear membranes
(1) steroid
(2) thyroid
T/F: endocrine glands only pass their secretions into the bloodstream.
F: also lymphatics and CT
T/F: The hypothalamus is the area of the brain located in the floor of diencephalon and forms part of the wall of the third ventricle
True
T/F: The hypothalamus consists of neuronal clusters called "nuclei" that are capable of secreting hormones which exert positive and negative effects on the pituitary gland
True
T/F: The response time of endocrine signals from the hypothalamus to the pituitary is relatively slow.
False: the response time is speedy
What is Rathke's pouch?
An evagination of oral ectoderm from the roof of the primitive mouth that migrates dorsally and ultimately becomes the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
Tumor resulting from residual Rathke's pouch tissue
craniopharyngioma
the inferior hypophyseal portal vessels arise from what source?
interna carotid artery
the inferior hypophyseal portal vessels supply what area?
pars nervosa (posterior pituitary)
trace the path of blood from the circle of Willis/internal carotid artery through the hypothalamus, the pituitary, and out to general circulation
internal carotid/circle of Willis -> superior hypophyseal arteries -> primary capillary plexus around the infundibulum & median eminence -> long hypophyseal portal vessels -> secondary capillary plexus in the area of the pars distalis -> cavernous veins
anatomically, how does the anterior pituitary regulate the actions of the hypothalamus?
shortal portal veins shunt blood containing neuroendocrine secretions of the pars distalis to the pars nervosa and then to the hypothalamus
represent 40-50% of the cell population of the anterior pituitary (be specific)
somatotrophs (a type of acidophil)
the main inhibitor of prolactin secretion
dopamine
infertility in women caused by lack of ovulation or dysfunctional uterine bleeding and decreased fertility/libido in men is associated with hypersecreting tumors of which cell type in the anterior pituitary?
lactotrophs (a type of acidophil) secreting too much prolactin, leading to feedback inhibition of gonadotropin releasing basophils
in a slide, the acidophils appear orange; what stain was used?
Halmi's
in a slide the basophils appear red; what stain was used?
PAS
Which of the following peptide hormones is NOT glycosylated?
(a) FSH
(b) LH
(c) GH
(d) ACTH
(c), GH comes from acidophils; only basophils seem to make glycosylated peptide hormones
What is Cushing's Disease?
Adenoma of corticotrophic basophils -> high cortisol levels, increased blood sugar due to depletion of muscle glycogen stores, muscle wasting, and obesity
Is ACTH secreted continuously?
No, in a circadian manner, with highest levels in the morning and tapering off during the day (maybe b/c your brain and/or muscles need a jolt of energy in the morning?)
What stain combination can be used to distinguish POMC cells from thyrotrophs?
aldehyde thionin (stains thyrotrophs intensely blue) + PAS (stain POMC cells, while thyrotrophs are only weakly PAS positive)
which anterior pituitary cells contain the smallest secretory granules?
thyrotrophs (less than 150 nm in size)
what effect does TRH have on the anterior pituitary?
stimulates release of:
(1) TSH and
(2) prolactin
two ways that the non-myelinated neurons of the pars nervosa differ from most other neurons
(1) they do not synapse on other neurons or target cells; instead they end near the fenestrated capillary network of the pars nervosa
(2) their cell bodies, axons, and axon terminal contain secretory granules
What are Herring bodies?
terminations of hypothalamic axons distended by abundance of secretory granules (found in the pars nervosa), consisting primarily of hormone-neurophysin complexes
What are Nissl bodies?
rER & free ribosomes in neural cells
Give four examples of APUD cells
(1) Kulchitsky cells of the trachea (small granule cells)
(2) Enteroendocrine cells of the GI
(3) Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medula
(4) Parafollicular cells of the thyroid
what component of sebum is anti-bacterial?
fatty acids
component of the glomerulal basement membrane that serves as an ionic filter
lamina rara interna and externa due to presence of negatively charged heparan sulfate
component of the glomerular basement membrane that functions primarily as a physical filter
lamina densa due to presence of uncharged collagen IV
main types of collagen found in the dermis of the skin
Collagen Types I & III
what is the order, superficial to deep, of structures connecting a basal keratinocyte to the dermis?
(1) hemidesmosome
(2) lamina lucida
(3) lamina densa
what is filaggrin?
keratohyalin granules (e.g., those seen in basal keratinocytes under EM)
typical lifespan of a keratinocyte from basal cell to sloughing off
30-50 days
keratins 5 & 14 are found here
basal keratinocytes
Four markers of differentiated keratinocytes
(1) keratins 1 & 10
(2) filaggrin
(3) involucrin
(4) loricrin
what makes stratum spinosum cells appear to be connected by rungs of a ladder?
cadherins and desmosomes
during which state of keratinocyte maturation are lamellar bodies first produced?
near the end of the stratum spinosum stage
what are the three determinants of skin color?
(1) level of melanin pigmentation
(2) Vitamin A levels (too much in kids -> bronzy skin)
(3) Hemoglobin levels (anemia -> pasty, white skin)
embryological origin of melanocytes
neural crest cells that migrate into the basal epidermis
term for melanocytes that remain in the dermis or in the dermal/epidermal junction
nevocytes
albinism is caused primarily by a deficiency in this enzyme
tyrosinase
these four hormones can stimulate pigmentation by stimulating and increasing metabolic activity within melanosomes
(1) MSH
(2) ACTH
(3) estrogen
(4) progesterone
each melanocytes supplies melanosomes to approximately how many keratinocytes
~30
what is an epidermal-melanin unit?
a single melanocyte and the ~30+ keratinocytes it supplies
how do keratinocytes accept melanosomes from melanocytes?
phagocytosis
why do melanocytes appear to have clear cytoplasms under the LM?
absence of keratin
this lesion consists of excess melanocytes within the dermis, triggering a downward growth of the epidermis
dysplastic nevus
a potentially lethal skin cancer with a higher fatality rate that basal cell or squamous cell cancer
melanoma
embryologic origin of Langerhans cells
bone marrow
where are Birbeck granules found?
Langerhans cells
where along a hair follicle are stem cells located?
directly above the insertion point for the arrector pilli muscle
epithelium found in the dermal ducts of eccrine sweat glands
double cuboidal
three examples of modified apocrine sweat glands
(1) ceruminous glands of the ear (secrete cerum)
(2) mammary glands
(3) apocrine glands of Moll in the eyelid
what comprises most of the stroma of the thyroid gland?
reticular fibers
what does calcitonin do and which cells secrete it?
calcitonin inhibits bone resorption and promotes bone deposition, lowering blood Ca2+ levels; it is secreted by the thyroid parafollicular cells in response to high blood Ca2+ levels
what regulates the production and release of calcitonin?
blood Ca2+ levels
osteitis fibrosa cystica is associated with which endocrine abnormality?
hyperparathyroidism
tetany is associated with which endocrine abnormality?
hypoparathyroidism
What does PTH do?
increases blood Ca2+ and lowers blood phosphate via the following mechanisms:
(1) promotes bone resorption by osteoclasts
(2) promotes Ca2+ reabsorption and phosphate secretion by the kidney
(3) stimulates 1,25 cholecalciferol (activated Vitamin D) production by the kidney, which acts upon the small intestine to increase Ca2+ absorption
What do D1 cells secrete?
Vasoactive Inhibitory Peptide
What do EC cells secrete?
secretin, motilin, and substance P
embryological origin of the adrenal cortex
(coelomic intermediate) mesoderm
embryological origin of the adrenal medula
neural crest cells
what is the blood supply of the adrenal medula?
(1) arterial blood via medullary arterioles (long cortical arterioles)
(2) venous blood via cortical sinusoidal capillaries
what is histologically unique about the suprarenal vein?
it contains a longitudinal layer of SM in its tunica media
what structures help to distribute chromogranin A secretions from adrenal medullary chromaffin cells into circulation?
lymphatics
what enzyme is found in cells of the zone fasciculata and zone reticularis but NOT in cells of the zone glomerulosa?
17-alpha-hydroxylase
Describe the ultrastructural characteristics of zone glomerulosa cells, with regard to:
(a) presence/absence of sER
(b) prominence of mitochondria
(c) prominence of Golgi
(d) specializations of PM
(e) connections b/c adjacent cells
(a) anastomosing network of sER
(b) lots of elongated mitochondria with broad, flat, shelf-like cristae
(c) prominent Golgi & associated vesicles visible
(d) PM has short, irregular microvilli
(e) adjacent cells connected via desmosomes
what does aldosterone act upon?
Stimules Na+ absorption at all sites & K+ secretion in kidney by acting on:
(1) distal tubules & collecting tubules of the kidney
(2) gastric mucosa
(3) salivary & sweat glands
What is Conn's Syndrome?
occurs when a tumor of the zone glomerulosa hypersecretes aldosterone
what are the two main effects of cortisol?
(1) stimulates gluconeogenesis to increase blood glucose (similar to glucagon)
(2) reduces inflammation by suppressing the immune system
What is Cushing's Disease?
a tumor of anterior pituitary basophils (POMC cells) that -> high ACTH -> high cortisol levels
What is Cushing's Syndrome?
a tumor of the zone fasciculata (usually) -> high cortisol but low ACTH levels
how do hormones get out of adrenal cortex cells?
passive diffusion (i.e., they do not require exocytosis)
A deficiency in what enzyme can cause albinism?
tyrosinase
What are the contents of chromaffin granules?
(1) catecholamines
(2) chromogramins (catecholamine binding proteins)
(3) dopamine beta-hydroxylase
(4) ATP + Ca2+
when a chromaffin reaction is performed on the adrenal medula, which stain typically stain the darkest brown
the minority of cells that contain norepinephrine in their chromaffin granules
in which layer of the GI tract is Meissner's plexus found?
submucosa
what is considered the most muscular portion of the GI tract?
esophagus
which esophageal glands protect the organ from gastric reflux?
cardiac glands of the lamina propria
what is the function of the esophageal (submucosal) glands?
similar to salivary glands, secrete mucous that lubricates the surface of the organ
the product of gastric churning and digestion called passed on to the duodenum
chyme
what ingested substances does the stomach actually absorb?
water, salt, alcohol, & aspirin
the oblique layer of the stomach is located where in relation to the other muscular layers?
internal to both
what might an endoscopist notice about the inside of an empty stomach?
presence of rugae
how many cell types can be found in gastric cardiac glands?
just one: mucous-secreting cells
what do mucous neck cells do under vagal stimulation?
secrete acidic, soluble mucous
what do gastric parietal cells do? what stimulates them to do it?
gastrin stimulates gastric parietal cells (cells found in the fundic glands) to secrete HCl
what do gastric chief cells do?
secrete pepsinogen
what do APUD cells of the gastric glands produce?
gastrin, secretin, CCK, GIP
what forms the central core of an intestinal circular fold?
an extension of the submucosa
what is the mechanism of secretion for cells of the intestinal crypts of Lieberkuhn?
holocrine
what is the name of the central vessel in an intestinal villus?
central lacteal
what stimulates the smooth muscle cells in the lamina propria at the core of an intestinal villus?
villikinin
What are Paneth cells? Where can they be found?
Paneth cells are lysozyme-secreting cells that regulate the bacterial flora. They are found at the base of small intestinal crypts and in the appendix
where are you most likely to find mitotic figures in the epithelium of the jejunum?
near the base of the crypts (of Liberkuhn)
what is the name of the condition that results in loss of villi due to adverse reactions to cereal protein
gluten enteropathy
which intestinal cells contain cannaliculi with microvilli?
parietal cells
what two aspects of the GI mucosa, found in the small intestine, are conspicuously absent from the gallbladder mucosa?
(1) goblet cells
(2) muscularis mucosa
in what part of the male reproductive tract do sperm gain motility?
epidydimus
which portion of the mature spermatid contains mitochondria?
middle piece
where do the glands of the prostate empty?
directly into the urethra (not into the ejaculatory duct, even though the duct traverses the prostate)
what is a canal of Hering?
a short bile ductule that connects a bile cannaliculus to the bile duct of the portal triad
what is the name for the structure formed when the granulosa cells of a secondary follicle bulge into the antrum?
cumulus oophorus
what is the name of the GAG-rich (hyaluronic acid-rich) liquid found in the antrum of secondary follicles?
liquor folliculi
what is the hyaline remnant of the corpus luteum?
corpus albicans