Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Tissue type that covers and lines surfaces
Tissue found in areas subject to attrition (skin, mouth, vagina)
stratified squamous epithelium
Tissue that covers dry surfaces such as skin
stratified squamous keratinized
Tissue type where all cells are attached to basal lamina, but some do not reach surface
pseudostratified epithelium
Connective tissue that all epithelial cells rest on
lamina propia
most epithelial cells are seperated from the connective tissue by what
basal lamina
name 3 functions of the basal lamina
1) structural functions 2) barrier to regualte exchange of molecules 3) polarity and cell to cell interactions
Basement membrane is composed of?
two basal lamina or a basal lamina and reticular lamina
Tight juction that completley encircles the cell...where is it found in the cell
zonula occludens, top of the cell
junction that encircles the cell adn adheres it to its neighbor..where is it found in the cell
Zonula adherens, top of cell, but below the ZO
Communication junction in the cell and what is it made of
Gap junction, connexon
disk shaped structure that is matched with an identical structure on other cell
desmosome (macula adherens)
Binds the epithelial cell to the basal lamina
hemidesmosone (half a desmosome)
List the following in the order they appear in the cell (starting with top of cell); Gap, hemidesosome, desosome, ZO, ZA
ZO, ZA, Gap, desmosome, hemidesmosome
Rough ER function
protein secretion
List 3 categories that are contained in Connective Tissue
Groud substance, fibers and cells
Function and appearance of fibrobalsts
Makes fibers and ground substance, flattened
Plasma cell; appearance and function
makes antibodies for defense; has a golgi ghost and offcentered nucleus
Mast cell; appearance and fxn
round with centered nucleus; releases heperein and histamine for defense
macrophage appearance and fxn
cleans up stuff for defense; larger nuceli than plasma cell, irregular shape
Lyphocytes appearance and fxn
small dark nuclei, almost no cytoplasm
List the fibers found in CT
Collagen, Reticular Fibers, Elastic fibers
Contents of ground substance
GAG's (bind water), Proteoglycans (protein + GAG), glycoproteins (laminan and integrin that attach cell to BL)
Loose Connective tissue
has more cells than ground fibers in it
Dense Connective tissue
has more fibers than cells and ground subatance in it
Types of connective tissue and examples of each
CT Proper (Dense and Loose)
Special CT (Reticular, Adipose and elastic)
Supportive CT (cartilage and bone)
3 types of cartilage
hyalin, elastic, and fibrous
what is hyaline cartilage made of
type II collagen
what is elastic cartilage made of
type II collagen and elastin
What is fibrous cartilage made of
dense network of type I (in areas subject to pulling)
Sheath of dense CT that forms an interface
perichondrium (cell layer and fibrous layer)
Which cartilage has larger chondrocytes, hyaline, elastic or fibrous
Elastic has largest. Hyaline has reg ones, fiibrous have very few
Which cartilage doesnt have a perichondrium; hylaine, elastic or fibrous
osteocytes, fxn and location
cells of bone that produce type I collagen and calcified ground substance; found in lucunae
sythesize components of bone; and differentiate into osteocytes
interstitial growth of cartilage
results from mitotic division of chondrocytes from with in (inc length of long bones and replacing cartilage from within)
appositional growth of cartilage
chondroblasts in perichondrium proliferate to chondrocytes and surround themselves with cartilage
compact bone
dense order of collagen fibers with out cavities and helical arrangement
spongey bone (trabecula)
collagen fibers with cavities
space that a osteocyte occupies
cause of scurvy
diet low in vitamin C, causes inadequate osteoid
excessive reabsorption of bone
organic component of bones before mineralization occurs
secrete enzymes that break down the organic componenent of bone and free calcium salts. VERY LARGE
Steps of remodeling of bone
(boneturnover) 1) resorption 2) replacement with little change od shape
Intramembraneously bone growth
direct mineralization of the matrix secreted by osteoblasts
Growth type that makes flat bones, growth of short bones and bone thickening
intramembraneous bone growth
Endochondrally bone growth
replacement of a pre existing cartiligenous model
Bone growth type that makes short and long bones
endochondrally bone growth
Five zones of the growth plate
1) zone of resting cartilage 2) Zone of Proliferation
3) Hypertrophy
4) Zone of calcification
5) Zone of ossification
Zone of resting cartilage
ordinary, non dividing cells of hyaline cartilage
Zone of proliferation
chondrocytes are divinding and stacked in rows, cells are still small
chondrocytes and lucuna become enlarged
Zone of calcification
small zone and is slightly darker than preceding hytrophy zone; calcium salts increase, chondrocytes die and lucunae open
Zone of ossification
(zone of cartilage removal and bone deposition) bone is laid down upon calcified cartilage.
3 phases of repair of fractured bone
1) inflammation
2) repair
3) remodeling
Inflammation phase of bone repair
damage occurs to osteocytes and periosteum - macrphage enter to get rid of waste and dead tissue
Repair phase of bone repair
hard callus that is made of bone and soft callus made of cartilage is used for stabilization -
Remodeling phase of bone repair
soft callus is replaced by bone, osteoclasts and osteoblasts smooth out hard callus
Connective Tissue that covers individual muscle cells
Compostion of the endomysium that covers muslce fibers
basal lamina and reticular fibers
Connective tissue that surrounds a bundle of muscle fibers
Connective tissue that surrounds masses of muscle fibers
Structures that detect changes in the length of muscles fibers and relay this info to the spinal cord
muscle spindle
Unit that extends from Z line to Z line
darker bands on the sarcomere and what they are made of
A band (thick filaments)
lighter bands between sarcomeres and what they are made of
I bands (thin filaments)
contains the tryad
Bisects the I band
Z line
Center of sarcomere
H band
The myofibrils that compose muscle fibers are surrounded by what
sarcoplasmic reticulum and invaginated by T tubules
Protein that connects M line (center) to Z line
Titin (also creates elasticity lets muscle spring back)
Method of Skeletal Muscle contraction
1) AP- the nerve impulse- reaches the presynaptic end
2) Ca induces ACh release from vesicles
3) ACh binds to receptors on postsynaptic end
4)depolarization of plasma membrane
5) signal is carried deep by T tubules
6) Ca is released from SR initiating contraction
Method of cardiac muscle contraction
cardiac cells (myocytes) spontaneous contract due to parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (also use cross bridge)
Method of smooth muscle contraction
contraction is involuntary and controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
Method of regulation of smooth muscle contraction
Myosin light chain kinase in presence of Ca-calmodulin complex
which cell in a muscle causes a knee jerk response
muscle spindle
type of muscle that has nuclei on the edge of the cell
type of muscle that is striated
skeletal and cardiac
type of muscle that has a tryad
(SR - tubule- SR)
type of muscle with central nucleus
cardiac and smooth
type of muscle with a dyad
cardiac (only one SR and tubule)
Intercalating disc and where is it found
membrane seperating adjacent cells in cardiac muscle
purpose of intercalating discs
support synchronized contraction of cardiac tissue
Three types of membrane junctions in the intercalated disc
1) fascia adherens
2) macula adherens
3) gap junctions
Anchoring sites for actin in cardiac muscle
fascia adherens
Junction in cardiac muscle that stops seperation during contraction
macula adherens (desmosome)
junctions that allow AP to spread between cardiac cells
gap junction - AP spreads by letting the ions pass between cells, producing depolarization of the heart
Cells just under the endocardium
Purkinje cells- big cells, sometimes binucleated
3 parts of neuron
cell body
function of the dendrites
elongated parts that receive stimuli
center for the whole nerve that receive stimuli
cell body
generates or conducts nerve impulses to other cells
What repairs damaged nerve cells
schwann cells undergo mitotic divisionand bridge the gap
Size and shape of regenerated neurons
they are narrower and have shorter internodal segments
In PNS, what produces myelin
schwann cells
In CNS, what produces myelin
a structure associated with intercellular communication
a junction that attaches an epithelial cell to its basement membrane
a cell that has granules that contain heparin
mast cell
which cell produces osteiod
osteoblasts - osteoid is a new layer of bone matrix that isnt yet calcified
how do chondrocytes get their nutrients
by diffusion from blood vessels located in the perichondrium
Packages proteins
Sythesizes lipids, steriod hormones, and calcium storage for bone
rich in gene concentration (form of chromatin); white part next to nucleus
tightly packed form of DNA; dark part next to nucleus
Characteristics of all epithelium
avascular, attached to basement membrane, little intracellular space, rest on vascularized connective tissue, cover surfaces and line hollow structures
thinnest tissue in the body
simple squamous
simple cuboidal normally found
lining hollow tubes
adhesive junctions
macula adherens (desmosome) and zonula adherens
what organ system do cilia have a key role
fine collagen fibers that supprt lymph nodes and liver cells
reticular fibers
how do plasma cells store the antbodies they produce
in RER
made of laminan and Collagen IV
basal lamina
what accounts for the bulk of protein in the body
What type of cartilage growth is associated with isogenous group
What is desmosome made of
intermediate filaments
9 + 2 arrangement of cilia
associated with a microvilli brush border
terminal web
strongest junction
pushes cells higher into the cell
basal infoldings
what can pass through gap junction
components of a microvilli
actin center, 2 layer plasma mebrane, glycocalyx coating
have lysozones and are acidic