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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is unusual about the endocrine system?
not physically connected like other systems are.
Name the parts of the endocrine system.
Hypothalmic-Pituitary system, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, parathyroid, gastrointestinal (enteroendocrine), liver (somatomedin), pancreas (islands of langerhans), placenta (hCG, somatomammotropin), kidney (erythropoietin), heart (ANH), adipose (leptin), thymus (many!)
Where is hypothalamus?
Under thalamus (relay center in brain)
What is diencephalon?
Part of brain giving rise to hypophsis, hypothalamus and epiphysis.
What controls body mass?
Define endocrine.
System of internal secretion.
How are endocrine hormones released?
Secreted from surface of endocrine cell into interstitial space. Taken in by capillary. Taken up where receptor.
Describe neuroendocrine secretion.
chemical signal sent by neuron into blood stream to be accepted by a receptor.
Describe paracrine secretion
Paracrine means beside. Paracrine system secretes chemical signal that bypasses circ system and goes straight to receiver
Describe autocrine secretion.
Secretion that affect the same organ that secreted it
What are the classes of hormones?
1) proteins, peptides, glycoproteins
2)amino acid derivatives
3) steroids
How, where are protein hormones made?
rER, gogi, secretory granule, merocrine secretion
How, where are amine hormones made?
sparse rER, small granules
How, where are steroid hormones made?
sER- mitochondrial with tubular cristae- no storage, binding globules. No storage of these. Lipid soluble.
Describe basic mechanism of steroid hormones.
Acts differently. No need for membrane bound since lipid soluble and can get thru cell. Gets in cell, modifies receptor inside cyto, effects DNA through nuclear binding protein, this impact on DNA causes change
Describe basic flow of protein and peptide mechanism.
Protein and peptide hormones bind to transmembrane receptor causing cascade with 2nd messenger. Signal transduction event- Cascade includes enzymatic activity changes transcription profile (factors).
Describe location and origin of pituitary.
undergrowth of brain, nubbin of stuff in middle of back of brain. Derived from oral Epithelial and CNS neural ectoderm. This controls many of other glands.
What are 2 parts of pituitary?
Posterior (from CNS neural ectoderm) and Anterior (from epis of mouth). Big part on bottom= anterior, posterior= mostly nervous part.
What causes outpocket to form in the begining of pituuitary production?
The diencephalon prompts the outgrowth.
Name parts of Pituitary from neural ectoderm.
Pars nervosa and infundibular stalk (connects to brain)
Name parts of pituitary from epithelial.
Pars tubular (wraps tube of nervosa), pars intermedia, and pars distalis
What is rathke's pouch?
an epithelial primitive upgrowth of the mouth that gives rise to anterior.
What is swelling in the posterior pituitary.
Median eminance.
What is neurohemal organ?
Organ which receive axons of neurosecretory
What are pituicytes?
Glial cells in pituitary and have role in maintainng structure
Which cells make hormone in Pituitary?
nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus.
What are herring bodies?
Out of focus, acidophilc swellings along axons of neurosecretory
Describe two hormones of pars nerova.
1) Oxytocin (nona peptide) made by paraventricular cells impacts contractions, suckling reflex. 2) ADH or AVP conserves water in body, made by supraoptic nucleus, also called vassopressin causes thirst
Describe alcohol and caffeine effect on ADH.
prevents ADH from being released. Caffeine blocks ADH.
Describe Hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system.
pars distalis portal veins which carry hormones to control system.
What are pituitary dependent endocrine glands?
thyroid, adrenal cortex, and gonads
What are 3 adenohypophysis cell types?
acidophils, basophils (glycoproteins) and chromophobes (depleted cells that have lost granulates or are undiffentiated or stellate and follicular cells).
What is a follicle?
Sphere of cells that has hollow in the middle like those in ovary.
What color are the 3 main cell types stained from the adenohypophysis?
Red, blue, clear cytoplasm
What types of cells in pars nervosa?
glial, neurons
What is role of follicle in pars intermedia?
Pars intermedia is important in frogs. Why?
So they can change colors quickly, It produces lots of melanocytes.
Pars intermedia isn't terribly visible in humans. Why?
Smaller than in coloring changing animals.
What structures are associated with the neurohypophysis?
tubular and PI
Give details of GH and STH
protein somatotrope, target organ is liver, influences insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I), hypothalamic control is +GHRH and Somatostatin
Give details of PRL (prolactin)
protein mammotrope (lactotrope), targets mammary gland milk production, hypothalmic control is +TRH, -Dopamine
Name the 2 hormones produced by acidophils.
GH and PRL
Name the hormones made by basophils.
FSH, LH, TSH, all glycoproteins with alpha and beta chain, alpha chain is identical on all, beta is slighltly different in each. Evolutionary it is believed all came from single primitive hormone. 2 are gonadotropins, 1 affects thyroid.
Give details of FSH.
glycoprotein, a and b chains, gonadotropin, targets, ovary and testis, hypothalamic control is GnRH
What is sertoli cell?
Male Equiv of ovary, makes sperm. Production controlled by FSH.
Give details of LH.
Causes formation of corpeus luteum, induces ovulation, in male, affects interstitial cells for production of testosterone. +GnRH control.
Give details of TSH
from hypothalamus, controls thyroid's thyroxine development, controled by +TRH and -Somatostatin
What are other hormones made by basophils (2).
ACTH, Endorphin, MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone).
What are endorphins?
Produced in many places, but lots in pit. Natural pain killers, have receptor for opiate. small peptide from POMC corticotrope. CNS analgesic.
Describe ACTH.
lg peptide fragment controlled by CRTH, targets adrenal cortex steroids.
Describe MSH.
targets melanocytes in men
Feedback loop
Produce LH, circulates, binds to testis, causes testosterone production, goes back and effects the original production to cause a negative feedback mechanism to stop production if enough is in body.
What is pinneal (epiphysis) in humans?
Associated with recognition of light and dark, not sure how it works. Positioned on diencephalon, but cerebral cortex covers so we have less reception. Hormone is melatonin.
What are cell types of pinneal?
Glial and melatonin making pinealocytes.
What are pinealocytes?
Secrete melatonin at night, endogenous rhythms, reproductive cycles, onset of puberty, anti-gonadotropic effect.