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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Articular Cartilage - Structure
Hyaline Cartilage w/o Perichondrium
Organized into four layers w/different amounts of cells and ECM constituents
Gradual transition of stiffness reduces chance of tear
Avascular and Aneural
Active level of metabolism through synthesis and degradation
Articular Cartilage - Function (3)
Provide smooth joint surface (excellent friction, lubrication, wear characteristics)
Dissipates applied load onto the bony structures below
Absorbs mechanical shock
Knee Menisci - Structure
3 layers, with different fiber orientation
Thick collagen type I fibers oriented primarily in circumferential pattern with few small fibers oriented in radial direction. (radial fibers limit separation of circumferential fibers)
Sparse vasculature to peripheral regions (10-30%)
Innervation to peripheral 2/3
Knee Menisci - Function (5)
Load distribution
Shock Absorption
Joint Lubrication
Protection of articular cartilage
Add stability/increase congruity
Intervertebral Disc - Structure
Fibrous peripheral annulus fibrosus, semi-fluid central nucleus pulposus
Nourished by diffusion
IVD - Annulus Fibrosus - Structure
Abundant collagen type I fibers
Arranged in 10-20 concentrically layered sheets (lamellae)
Fibers run parallel ~60-70 degrees from vertical
Direction of fibers alternates btw adjacent layers
Peripheral annulus innervated by free nerve endings
IVD - Nucleus Pulposus - Structure
Abundant Proteoglycans and Water
Intervertebral Disc - Function
Allow movement btw vertebrae
Transmit loads from one vertebrae to the next
Synovial Membrane - Structure
Intimal Layer
Subintimal Layer
Synovial Fluid
Synovial Membrane - Intimal Layer
Inner cellular layer, comprised of 2 different cell types: Fibroblast Like Cells (Type B Synovocytes), Macrophage Like Cells (Type A Synovocytes)
Synovial Membrane - Subintimal Layer
Outer vascular layer comprise of loose, dense, or adipose connective tissue depending on location. Contains nerves and lymphatics
Synovial Membrane - Synovial Fluid
Major constituents are hyaluronic acid and glycoproteins in a fluid transudate from teh synovial capillaries
Synovial Membrane - Function (3)
Secretion of synovial fluid hyaluronate
Phagocytosis of waste material
Regulation of the movement of solutes, electrolytes, proteins from the vasculature into synovial fluid.