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18 Cards in this Set

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What is the glycocalyx?
polar oligosac. Side chains linked cov to most proteins and some lipids of plasmalemma (contains proteoglycans [GAGs bound to integral proteins]
What is the function of the glycocalyx? (6x)
1. aids in attachment of some cells
2. binds antigens/enzymes to surface
3. facilliates cell-cell recognition and interaction
4. protects cell via preventing contact;
5. aligns T-cells and APC
6. prevents in approrp enzymatic cleavage
What are the heterotrimeric G proteins? (5x)
1. Stimulatory G Proteins (Gs)
2. Inhibitory G proteins (Gi)
3. phospholipase C activator G protein (Gp)
4. Olf-actory-specific G protein (Golf)
5. Transducin (Gt)
Stimulatory G protein (Gs): Function, Result, Examples
Function: Activates AC leading to formation of cAMP

Result: activation of protein kinases

Examples: epinephrine binding to B-adrenergic receptors (inc cAMP levels in cytosol)
Inhibitory G protein (Gi): Function, Result, Examples
Function: inhibits adenylate cyclase, preventing formation of cAMP

Result: protein kinase inactive

Examples: Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors (dec. cAMP in cytosol)
phospholipase C activator G protein (Gp): Function, Result, Example
Function: activates phospholipase C leading to IP3 and DAG formation
Result: influx of Ca into cytosol and activation of pKC
Examples: binding of antigen to membrane-bound IgE causes release of histamine by mast cells
olfactory specific G protein (Golf): Function, Result, Example
Function: activates AC in olfactory neuron
Result: opens cAMP gated Na channels in olfactory neuros
Examples: initiates nerve impulse
Transducin (Gt): Function, Result, Example
Function: act. cGMP phosphodiesterase; hydrolysis of cGMP
Result: hyperpolarization of rod cell membrane
Examples: photon activation of rhodospin causes rod cells to fire
What is an integrin?
proteins which associcate plasmalemma and cytoskeleton;

Most important: Band 3
Red blood cell framework (5 components)
Band 3: attached to plasma membrane
(integrin)

Spectrin: long flexible protein composed of alpha and B chains; forms tetramers and forms scaffold for strxl reinforcement

Actin: attaches to binding sites of spectrin tetramers and holds them together (aids in spec latticework)

Band 4.1: stabilizes spectrin-actin complexes

Ankyrin: links band 3 proteins and spectrin tetramers
Cytoskeleton framework of nonerythroid cells (4)
1. Band 3: integrin acts as connection between plasmalemma and cytoskeleton

2. Actin/fodrin: nonerythroid spectrin: scaffold for strxl stability

3. alpha-actinin: cross links actin filaments to form a meshwork

4. Vinculin: binds alpha actinin and talin (protein which binds integrin)
Cystinuria: description and cause
Description: kidney stones

Cause: abnormal carrier proteins unable to remopve cystine form urine
Cholera toxin: description and cause
Description: diarrhea, severe electrolyte loss

Cause: alteration of G protein so unable to hydrolyze GTP, leading to high cAMP
Pertusis toxin: description and cause
Description: death/irritation/damage of bronchial mucosa

Cause: ADP ribosylation of alpha portion of G protein: accumulation of inactive G proteins
Venoms: description and cause
Description: relaxation of skeletal muscle

Cause: inactivate AcH receptors of skeletal muscle sarcolemma
Autoimmune diseases: description, cause
Description: Ex: Grave's Disease

Cause: Ab stimulation and activation of plasma membrane receptors
Defective Gs proteins: description, cause
Description: delay/inhibition of development

Cause: defect Gs protein: decreases responses to certain hormone
Hereditary sphereocytosis: description, cause
Description: anemia, misshapen RBC

Cause: defective spectrin which cannot properly bind to band 4.1 proteins: fragile, misformed RBCS