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45 Cards in this Set

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What do you call a cancer cell that arises from connective tissue
Sarcoma
What do you call cancer arising from the blood or bone marrow
Leukemia
What do you call those proteins that are involved in apoptosis
Caspases
what are the 2 types of caspases
initiator and effector
In extrinsic apoptosis a ligand binds to what kind of receptor?

what kind of proteins are activated
a death receptor

death domain adaptor proteins
whats the first big event of intrinsic apoptosis
puncturing of mitochondria and release of cytochrome C from mitochondria
the two components of nucleosomes
DNA and histones
what is the diameter of a nucleosome
10 nm in diameter
how many histones in a nucleosome
8
where do you find telomeres
at the ends of chromosomes
In a medical battalion, how many surgical companies and shock trauma platoons are there?
Three Surgical Companies and Eight Shock Trauma Platoon.
what are the four phases of the cell cycle in order
m (mitotic), G1 (gap 1), S (DNA synthesis), G2 (gap 2)
interphase consists of what parts of the cycle
G1, S, G2
the 2 checkpoints of G1
DNA damage

Restriction (evaluation of cell size and environment)
what happens in the S phase

S phase checkpoint
replication of DNA (including centromeres)

DNA damage checkpoint
what happens in G2

G2 checkpoints
cell prepared for replication

Checkpoints for unreplicated DNA, DNA damage
M phase checkpoints
Spindle assemble (prevents premature anaphase)

chromosome segregation (no cytokinesis until they are)
what do you call the proteins that regulate the cell cycle

what do you call the proteins that regulate THEM
cyclins

cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk)
what part of the cell cycle is the Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) associated with
G1
what is the main cyclin for the M phase
Cyclin B
Does Rb inhibit or activate the cell cycle
inhibit
Is Rb active when phosphorylated or dephosphorylated?
Rb active when dephosphorylated
Active Rb protein does what to what?
binds E2F protein, which wants to initiate the S phase and DNA synthesis
There are DNA damage checkpoints at G1, S and G2. Does DNA damage activate or inhibit P53
Activates P53
What does unreplicated DNA at the G2 checkpoint do?
inactivates the M cyclin and Cdk until replication is complete
What protein product does activated p53 cause to be translated?
Cdk inhibitory proteins (CKI's)
what does APC stand for?

What cell phase do you it?
Anaphase Promoting Complex

M phase
How does APC function?
APC causes the dissocciation of Securin, a regulatory protein, from Separase, which wants to get in and disrupt the Cohesin complexes between sister chromatids
how would you describe telomerase
its an enzyme not usually found in humans that elongates the telomeres, prolonging cell life
what happens when the telomeres are used up?
p53 is activated and the cell is shut down
can some cancer cells reactivate telomorase?
yes, and genetic instability continues to cascade, resulting in accelerated mutations
name the 5 stages of mitosis in order
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
what do you call that region of heterochromatin that holds sister chromatids together?
centromere
what do you call the organelle that is a the microtubule organizing center
centrosome
what do you call that complex of 80 proteins that attaches the chromosome to the mitotic spindle
kinetochore
how many centrosomes in a microtubule organizing complex?
2, at right angles to each other, inside this spherical MTOC
what are the 3 types of microtubules (by function) in mitosis
Astral (just out there)
Kinetochore (to the centromere/kinetochore apparatus)
Overlap
what are the two motor proteins of mitosis
dynein

kinesin
at what phase do the centrosomes replicate?
S
3 things that occur during prophase
chromosomes condense
mitotic spindle assembly forms
kinetochores form
2 things of prometaphase
breakdown of nuclear envelope

chromosomes attach to mitotic spindle via kinetochores
1 thing that identifies metaphase
chromosomes aligned at the equatorial, metaphase plate
what are the two phases of anaphase
the kinetochore microtubules get shorter

the centrosomes move further apart
3 things that occur in telophase
the separated sister chromatids decondense

reassembly of nuclear envelope

assembly of the contractile ring
the constricting of the contractile ring causes what?
cytokinesis, division of the cytoplasm