Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/31

Click to flip

31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
neuron
The basic unit of the Central Nervous System, which supplies communication to the brain and spinal cord from the rest of the body. Because of the brain's importance as the center of behavior and a motivator of skeletal muscle, neurons are extraordinarily special cells as they coordinate communication within the most important communication space in the human body.
ligaments
Bands of tight collagen fibers that connect bones at joints and restrict movement or enable according to need and function. The knees, elbows and neck are all heavily reliant on tendons as are many major joins. It does not have the elasticity of tendons, which connect muscle to bone, and can stretch to a limited measure. Therefore when excessive pressure is placed on tendons they break as is the case with many professional athletes, particularly in the knees.
loose connective tissue
The most common tissue found in vertebrates, it underlies any epithelial tissue that is exposed to the external environment. It also functions to hold organs in place, is largely made of fibroplasts, and has a mesh-like quality.
muscle
A major tissue that includes the forms that structure the heart, skeleton and maintain numerous bodily functions, such as eating and defication. Muscle's primary role is to keep the form of organs in their environment and in the case of cardiac muscle, provide for the distribution of an essential tissue. It provides organisms with range of motion, power, speed and is commonly in the form fast-twitch and slow-twitch. The motor mechanisms, and human life is enabled by muscle.
organs
An organized unit of tissues that functions for a special purpose. They contain different types of cells are crucial to the functioning of the human body and many organisms. Are surrounded by loose connective tissue and take many forms, from the lungs to the skin to the liver.
osteocytes
Star shaped cells that connect osteons within compact bone and also occupy the Haversian canals within the osteons.
platelets
Cells that function in clotting. These cells allow for scabs and are an essential source of protection for the human body both from the external environment and the internal environment. They are carried in the blood plasma but constitute less than one percent of the its volume and so their supply can be easily exhausted. Because blood is such a vital tissue, the platelets guard the potential loss of blood and as with the erythrocyte they do not have a nucleus.
pseudostratified
A type of columnar epithelia tissue that although only one cell deep, contains nucleui that appear at different depths and therefore give the appearances of multiple layers. Pseudostratified cells are found in the trachea, and are lined with cilia.
reticular fibers
A structural fiber that consists of type III Collagen and is arranged in networks, in which it takes a mesh-like property. It is found in the liver and the bone marrow and is also an important part of the immune system.
simple epithelia
Can be comrpised of simple squamous tissue, which is only a cell deep and easily allows for the passage of liquids to the underlying membrane. Gases easily diffuse through the simple squamous, which is why they cover the alveoli and are found as lining for many of the body's cavities. Also can be comprised of cubiodal cells, and are found in places such as the mouth and nose because their limited depth offers easy passage for liquids and gases by diffusion.
skeletal muscle
A striated muscle that is both voluntary and involuntary and is closely connected to bone. It's common protein is myosin and it is the most well-known muscle throughout the body, and the definition or straitions of the muscle visible from the skin are a sign of physical fitness.
squamous
A type of epithelial tissue that comes in two forms: simple and stratified. Simple squamous tissue has only one fairly flat cell between the surface and the basement membrane. This facilitates the exchange of different oxygen, proteins and other vital body resourses. Simple squamous tissue covers the alveoli as it allows for the efficient passage of gases. Statified squamous consists of many layers of cells between the surface and the basement membrane and the layering provides an overall mechanical strength to the skin. Keratinized stratified squamous is found in the longue and lips while non-Keratinized stratified squamous is found in the vagina.
stratified epithelia
Epithelia that contains many layers of cells, such as the skin. Multiple layers provide greater protection against infection, abrasion and also stengthen the overral constitution of the tissue. Stratified epithelia is found inside the body as well, as keratinized stratified epithelia lines the nose and mouth. Non-keratinized stratified epithelia is found in the vagina.
tendons
Very elastic bands of fibers that connect muscle to bone and serve to structure and support joints. Many major joints for locomotion, such as the hip, knee and ankle rely heavily upon tendons for range of motion.
visceral muscle
A type of striated smooth muscle that is the most common form of this muscle, and its relative strength is required to line serveral organs, including the liver. Its shape is that of long spindles of collagen, although unlike cardiac and skeletal muscle it is activated by calcium.
blood
A tissue that travels throughout the body in aqeuous plasma medium, and serves many essential functions, such as oxygen dystribution, carbon dioxide transport, the delivery of proteins, various amino acids and other essential resources to the bodies organs and cells. It is ordinarily comprised of 45% red blood cells, whihch carry oxygen via the protein Hemoglobin, 1% white blood cells and less than a percent of platelets. The remainder is the plasma medium, which is approximately 92% water with 8% protein. Blood is conduit through which the body's various organs remain in function.
epithelial
Line the exterior and interior of the body, and on the exterior are comprised of stratified squamous tissue that functions against abrasion and infection by containing multiple layers. In this way they protect the basement membrane and prevent small molecules from the basement membrane and/or the connective tissue that underlies it. They do not contain blood veisels nor do they contain Keratin, so they get heat by diffusion. The stratified squamous of the epitelium that comrpises the skin is connected at tight junctions so as to provide a strong mechanical covering. Microvilli extend into the external environment to increase the surface area of the epithelial tissue and also to sense any foreign objects, such as bugs and other unwanted foreign objects.
cuboidal
Simple form of epilithelium tissue that resembles a cube in shape, with the cell's nucleus usually close to in the center. From a vertical view these cells appear to be cubic but from a surface view they appear to take the form of a polyhedra.
adipose tissue
These are composed of some of the largest cells in the body and their function is as storage of fat.
axons
One of the conduits, along with the dendrite, of the neuron such that the neuron can communicate with other neurons. It is also the connection point of the Schwann cells and the soma, at which it connects at what is called the "Axon Hillock." This location has the highest hyperpolarized action potential threshold of the entire neuron and therein, handles an extraordinary amount of electrical current.
cardiac muscle
An involuntary straited muscle that is responsible for pumping plasma throughout the body and redistributing waste products and carbon dioxide to the lungs. It is supplied by arteries, which take blood away from the heart and veins that bring blood to it. The human heart is build to withstand fatigue as it beats something like 100,000 times per day. It is four-chambered, and contains two atria and two ventricles. The right side of the heart is much more muscular than the left side because the former pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs throughout the body into large tubular arteries, which requires a lot of pressure to sustain, while the former pumps waste and carbon dioxide back to the lungs for disposal through respiration. It is primarily powered by hydrolysis and the two proteins action and myosin.
chondrocytes
The only cells found in cartiledge, which is largely comprised of collagen. They have the capacity to either take the permanent form of a chondrocyte or that of an osteoblast. As the only cells in cartiledge they serve the essential role of providing oxygen to the collagen and of maintaining the chemical coordination with the rest of the body.
collagenous fibers
A fiber made of collagen, the most abundant protein in the human body as it accounts for around 25% of the body's protein. It is found in loose connective tissue and is also made by fibroblasts.
columnar
A type of cell found in epithelial tissue that is twice its measure in height to that of its width. This gives the cell a length that allows it more resistance and so it lines the small intestine and the other parts of the digestive track. It is found in all three forms: simple, stratified and pseudostratified. Simple columnar epithelia with celia is found in the trachea.
connective tissue
Provide structure and support throughout the body. Blood and bones are made of connective tissue. They are in the mesoderm, and support all eptithelial cells that are exposed to the external environment.
dendrites
Protoplasmic processes that branch out from nerve cells and function in the nervous system as conductors of impulses to the nerve cell.
elastic fibers
Found in connective tissue and also smooth muscle, these fibers are made by fibroblasts and consist of the protein Elastin. They can stretch to 1.5 times their normal size.
erythrocytes
Red blood cells, which are the most common blood cell in the human body. They are produced in the bone marrow although they leave and as a stem cell take the form of an erythrocyte. Their primary function is to carry oxygen throughout the body, which is achieved through the attachment of oxygen to hemoglobin within the anuclei cells. Also, because they have no nucleus they contain no DNA. They are produced rapidly, some estimates are that of 2 million per second, and live a maximum life of about 120 days after which they are disposed of largely in the spleen and liver.
fibroblasts
Cells found in connective tissue that make up the "bulk" of most organisms. They give structural support to organs by supplying precursers to the extracellular matrix and the most common type of cell in connective tissue. They also make different proteins, such as Elastin, and function in wound healing.
Haversian systems
Also called Osteons, these are a system of concentric lamallea that form the structure of a kind of osseous, compact bone. This type of bone account for 80% of an individuals body mass and the Haversian systems, which consist of circular ringed lamallea connected by osteocytes, offer a channel to transport nutrients and metabolic waste through bone. The Haversian canal serves this function as does the space in which the osteocytes rest, so that the bone can properly restore and maintain itself.
leukocytes
White blood cells. Their primary function is to fight disease and therefore, the number of white blood cells in a person's body is an indicator of his or her health. They make up about 1% of the body's blood supply and are crucial to the immune system, which is funded by leukocytes. HIV and AIDS often leads to a drastic reduction of leukocytes, taking the lives of carriers often through common infections because of a depleted immune system.