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10 Cards in this Set

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What is mitochondrial cytopathy and its possible consequences?
Abnormal mitochondrial DNA impairing mitochondrial function resulting in muscle weakness, degenerative diseases of CNS & metabolic disturbances (increase is lactic acid concentration).
Describe the three major functions of the Golgi apparatus?
1.modification of macromolecules by the addition of sugars (medial golgi)
2.Proteolysis of peptides into active forms (trans golgi)
3.Sorting of macrocolecules into specific membrane-bound vesicles for subsequent incorporation into a membrane, transport into lumen of an organelle or secretion. * Cis face receives vesicles & phosphorylates some proteins*
What is the centrosome?
The centrosome is the nucleation center for microtubule polymerization which radiate out as asters
What is the role of the centrioles?
the centriole organizes cytoplasmic microtubular network in normal & dividing cells and organizes development of specialized microtubules in motile cilia
Describe the three regions of the nucleolus?
1.Pars amphora = nuclear organizing region with specific RNA binding proteins. Lg loops of transcribing DNA with rRNA genes.
2.Pars fibrosa = transcripts of rRNA genes to ribosomes
3.Pars granulose = RNA containing maturing ribosomal subunit particles.
What are the functions of epithelia?
1.Barrier = prevent entry of substances or things
2.Absorption = allow needed substances into the cell
3.Secretory = release created products for use elsewhere
Explain the clinical condition of Pemphigus.
It is a disease of cell junctions whereby an abnormal antibody to the proteins of Desmosomes are produced preventing normal adhesions form forming resulting in widespread blistering of the affected individual's skin.
Describe consequences resulting from cilial defects.
Immotile Cilia Syndrome: due to genetic defects coding for the ciliary proteins resulting in absent or uncoordinated beating which can cause an inability to more cell layers during embryogenesis so the organs can’t assume the normal anatomical position as well as impaired development of air sinuses, a diminished ability to move mucous leading to increased infections or premature death and infertility
What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine types of secretion.
Exocrine secretions are released from the apex of the cell on the surface or into a lumen while endocrine secretions are released from the lateral or basal surface to enter the bloodstream.
Define and Characterize osteomalacia.
It is a disease where the mineralization of bone is impaired due to a decrease in calcium ion concentration and less likely as a result of a decrease in phosphate ions leaving the patient with soft bones and an increase in fractures.