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14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Communicating Junctions- Gap junctions
- connexons- group of proteins on one plasma membrane that interact and make a pore with another group of proteins on neighboring cell membrane (its the whole unit)
- connexins- the actual proteins
- the connexins can be closed or open (opening allows the signal to go through the gap junction
Lateral Membrane specialization- Plicae
- lateral folds that increase the surface area (seen in cells that are active metabolically)
- active fluid transport cells
Basal Domain
- most frequently associated with underlying tissue

Has three features:
1. Basement membrane
2. Cell to ECM junctions (how cells are attached to basement membrane)
3. Plasma membrane infoldings
Basal Domain:
1. Basement Membrane
- on the bottom
- Basement Membrane= basal lamina + lamina reticularis
- Lamina reticularis- comes from connective tissue underlying epithelia (can't distinguish this though)
- PAS staining labels carbohydrates (how you can see them)
Four Major Components that Make Up Basal Lamina (they are produced by the epithelia themselves)
1. Collagen (IV)
- structural (maintains it)
- anchoring fibrils

2. Proteoglycans
- anionic (charged and hydrate the cell)
- regulates ion flow

3. Laminin
- links to integrins of epithelium
- they are small glycoproteins

4. Entactin/nidogen
- links laminin and Collagen IV
Functions of Basal Lamina
1. Structural attachment
2. Compartmentalization- separating epithelia from connective tissue/other cell types
3. Filtration
4. Polarity Induction
5. Tissue Scaffolding- reconstructing damaged tissue
Two Types of Cell to ECM adhesion
1. Focal adhesion- link actin to fibronectin in basement membrane (dynamic)

2. Hemidesmosome- link intermediate filaments (a "spot weld")
General Features of Connective Tissue
- cells + ECM (the ECM is larger in volume and gives the characteristics of the cell
-components of ECM = fibers, ground substance (filler space), fluid
- subclasses- based on cells and ECM
- cells are transient (coming and going)
Connective Tissue classifications (based on cell type, ECM and function)
1. Embryonic (in embryo only)
- mesenchyme, mucous CT
2. Connective Tissue proper
- loose CT (areolar)
- dense CT (irregular and regular)- tendons/ligaments
3. Specialized CT
- adipose, blood, bone, cartilage, hemopoietic, lymphatic
Embryonic CT
1. Mesenchyme
- embryonic
- 3D network of cells in embryo
- viscous ground substance (surrounds cells)

2. Mucous CT
- umbilical (only found here)
- ECM, called Wharton's jelly
CT Proper- Loose CT (areolar)
- found directly underneath epithelia
- thin, sparse collagen fibers
- abundant ground substance
- cells mostly transient (help with immune response also, ex: WBC)
- located beneath epithelium
- site of inflammatory response
CT Proper- Dense CT- Irregular
- bundled, weblike collagen
- sparse cells (fibroblasts)
- provides strength
- special examples: submucosa; reticular (deep layer of skin)
CT Proper- Dense CT- Regular
- ordered, dense collagen bundles (arranged in parallel bands)
- minimal ground substance (the bulk is made up of the fibers)
- examples: tendons (attach muscle to bone or muscle); ligaments (attach bone to bone); aponeuroses (specially involved in attaching muscle to muscle- it separates muscles)
- elastin fiber is also present
Components of CT
- cells (various types)
- ECM: fibers; ground substance; tissue fluid