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9 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Definitions:
- Histology-

- Tissues-

- Cells-
histology- study of tissues and cell types

tissues- organized aggregation of cells that function in collective manner

cells- basic functional unit of body. Cells together function in the body (not usually on their own- gametes are the exception)
Tissue components
I. Cells

II. Extracellular Matrix- outside the cells, help convey signals. Produced by the cells
Defining Tissues:
- Two definitional parameters
1. Morphological- (what does it look like?). Separates epithelium and connective tissue

2. Functional- separates muscle and nerve tissue

Mixture used to define subclasses: (subdivided based on morphology in this case):
eg. Muscle- cardiac, smooth, skeletal
eg. Myoepithelium
The Four Basic Tissues
1. Epithelium
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscle Tissue
4. Nerve Tissue
I. Epithelial Tissue- General Features
- always contiguous (connected)
- single (simple) or multi-layered (stratified) (refers to no. of cells that make up that tissue)
- cell-cell junctions create impermeable barrier
- subclasses based on shape and cell number
- General locations: free surfaces of body exterior; outer surface of internal organs; lining of body cavities, tubes and ducts; eg: pleural, pericardial, peritoneal
II. Connective Tissue- General Features (underneath epithelial tissue)
- cells separated from each other (not in direct contact)
- extracellular matrix (ECM) fills spaces (there's more ECM than cells)
- subclasses are based on cells and ECM
- Two major groups: loose CT (less compact), dense CT (more compact- ex: bone)
III. Muscle- General Features
- characterized by contractile proteins- actin and myosin
- cells are arranged in a particular fashion (along a particular axcess)
- Three main types:
1. smooth
2. skeletal
3. cardiac
IV. Nerve Tissue- General Features
- comprised on neurons and supporting cells (ex of supporting cells: glial cells)
- all exhibit electrical properties
- Neuron Anatomy:
1. cell body
2. two types of processes:
A.) Axon- single, efferent impulses (away)
B.) Dendrites- multiple, afferent impulses (to the cell)
Teratomas
- uncontrolled somatic cell that divides
- somatic cell differentiation in germ cells: ovarian= mostly benign; testis= all malignant

ex: Grey's Anatomy- teratomas can produce HcG