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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the main function of the kidney?
to make urine, filter, and reabsorb stuff
What is the renal sinus/hilus?
cavity where the renal artery, renal vein, nerves enter and contains fat
What is the general structural organization of the kidney?
-capsule
-cortex
-medulla
-lobes
-lobules
Is the capsule very thin?
yes
What is the cortex of the kidney?
-part closest to the capsule
-divided into cortical rays and cortical labrinth
-has a light and dark alternating array
What is the cortical labrynth of the kidney cortex?
the lighter pattern of the cortex
What is the cortical ray part of the kidney cortex?
the darker region of the cortex
What is the cortical column/renal column of the kidney cortex?
-extensions of the cortex to the sinus between the renal pyramids
-separates pieces of the medulla
What makes up the medulla of the kidney?
-papilla
-medullary pyramid
What is the papilla of the kidney medulla?
-tip of the medullary pyramid facing the minor calyx
-contains papillary ducts
What is the medullary pyramid of the kidney medulla?
-a heart shaped structure
-its base is between the junction of the pyramid and the cortex
What is the lobe of the kidney made of?
-medullary pyramids of medulla and tissue above it
-interlobar arteries and veins are the extreme boundaries("inter"=between lobes)
Where are interlobar arteries and veins located?
inside the renal columns
Tell five things about the lobule of the kidney.
-is smaller units of the lobe containing its own vascular base
-is above the medullary pyramid
-contains interlobular arteries on its outer boundaries
-the middle of teh lobule is the cortical ray
-has cortical labrinth on either side of the cortical ray
What makes up the urinerferous tubules?
nephron + collecting tubule
What is the renal corpuscle?
-located in the cortical labrynth of the renal cortex
-is a round sphere with a urinary pole and a vascular pole
What is the urinary pole?
distal pole where the tubular system begins and fluid filters out
What is the vascular pole?
Pole where the afferent vessels enter and efferent vesels leave
What is Bowman's capsule?
-the epithelial capsule of the renal corpuscle
- made of a parietal layer and a visceral layer
What type of epithelium is the parietal layer of Bowman's capsule made of?
simple squamous epithelium
What type of epithelium is the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule made of?
-simple squamous epithelium
Where are podocytes found?
In the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
What forms the glomerulus in the renal corpuscle?
the afferent arteriole, is lined with simple squamous epithelium, blood exits through the efferent arteriole
What is the space between the parietal and visceral layers of Bowman's capsule called?
capsular sapce or urinary space
What are podocytes?
-cells found on the visceral layer of bowman's capsule
-have long cytoplasmic arms with extensions that touch the basement membrane of the capillaries
-are involved in the filtration process
What are the filtration barriers between the lumen of the glomerular capillary and urinary space of the renal capsule?
-fenestrated membranes of the glomerular endothelium
-the basal membrane
-the slit membranne between podocyte membranes
What are the two parts of the proximal tubule?
-proximal convoluted tubule
-straight portion of the proximal tubule
Where is the proximal convoluted tubule located?
-found in the labrynth
-directly attached to the renal corpuscle at the urinary pole
Where is the straight portion of the proximal tubule located?
-is connected to the proximal convoluted tubule
-found in the cortical ray and the medulla
What type of epithelium is found in the proximal tubule?
-simple tall cuboidal/simple columnar epithelium with a brush border of microvilli on the apical surface
What are the divisions of the loop of henle?
-decending thick segment=straight portion of the proximal tubule
-thin segment
-ascending thick segment=first part of distal tubule
What type of epithelium is the thin loop of the loop of henle lined with?
simple squamous epithelium
What is the function of the loop of henle?
-the urine is made hypertonic here
-the body reabsorbs water from here
-glucose and protein absorption occurs here
**there is a lot of debri in this lumen
What are the two parts of the distal tubule?
-straight portion of the distal tubule
-distal convoluted tubule
Where can the distal tubule be found?
travels through the medulla, cortical ray, and cortical labrinth(convoluted part here)
What type of epithelium is in the distial tubule?
simple cuboidal epithelium with little or no brush border/microvilli
What is absorbed in the distal tubule?
calcium and sodium
What hormone controls the absorption of sodium in the distal tubule
aldosterone
What is aldosterone?
steroid hormone that is involved in sodium absorption and potassium secretion in the distal tubule
What is the function of the distal tubule?
-urine acidification
-not a lot of debri in the tubule
What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus?
-the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole
-the macula densa of the efferent arteriole
-mesangial cells
What are the juxtaglomerular cells of the afferent arteriole?
-modified smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole
-makes renin
What is renin?
-enzyme/hormone made in the adrenal gland involved in sodium ballance and regulating blood pressure
-found in juxtoglomerular apparatus that converts angiotensinogen...to angiotensin I...to angiotensin II
What is the macula densa of the efferent arteriole?
-is a modified segment of the wall of the distal tubule
-here the epithelial wall changes from cuboidal to columnar
What are mesangial cells?
-triangle cells between the wall of the distal tubule and the glomerulus
-light staining cells
What type of epithelium is found in the collecting tubule?
-starts as cuboidal in cortex
-becomes collumnar in medulla
What is the collecting tubule?
is where the urine leaves the kidney and enters into the minor calyx
What occurs in the collecting tubule if vasopressin is present?
-water absorption
-vasopressin is an antidiuretic hormone that prevents constant urination
What are the two types of circulation is the kidney?
-cortical circulation
-juxtamedullary circulation
What is the blood flow in cortical circulatiOn?
-renal artery
-interlobar artery
-arcuate artery
-interlobular artery
-afferent arterioleglomerulus
-efferent arteriole
-***cortical peritubular capillaries
-interlobular vein
-arcuate vein
-interlobar vein
-renal vein
What is the blood flow in the juxtamedullary circulation?
-renal artery
-interlobar artery
-arcuate artery
-interlobular artery
-afferent arteriole
-glomerulus
-efferent arteriole
-***vasa recta
-arcuate vein
-interlobar vein
-renal vein
Where is the cortical peritubular capillaries located?
-these surround all of the tubules in the cortex, this is where absorption occurs
Where is the vasa recta?
surround all tubules in the medulla and are straight vessels
What is the function of the calyces, pelvis, ureter, and bladder?
stores urine formed in the kidneys
What type of epithelium does the calyces and pelvis contain?
transitional: 2-3 layers
What type of epithelium does the ureter contain?
transitional: 4-5 layers
What type of epithelium does the urinary bladder contain?
transitional: 6-8 layers
Is a lamina propria present in the calyces, pelvis, ureter, and urinary bladder?
yes
Is a muscularis mucosae present in the calyces, pelvis, ureter, and urinary bladder?
no
Is a tunica muscularis present in the calyces & pelvis?
yes
2 layers
Is a tunica muscularis present in the ureter?
yes
-upper region= 2 layers
-lower region= 3 layers
Is a tunica muscularis present in the urinary bladder?
yes
-3 layers
Is a tunica adventita or serosa present in the calyces & pelvis?
adventitia
Is a tunica adventita or serosa present in the ureter?
adventitia
Is a tunica adventita or serosa present urinary bladder?
dorsally = adventitia
ventrally = serosa