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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two divisions of the respiratory system?
-conducting division
-respiratory division
What are the four functions of the respiratory system?
-warms and moistens air- conchae of nasal cavities
-traps pollutants in nasal cavity
-removes dust
-carries O2 to the lungs and CO2 out of the lungs
What is the conducting division of the respiratory system?
air conducting tubes that connect the exterior of the body to the respiratory portion of the lungs
What is the respiratory division of the respiratory system?
where exchange of gases between blood and air takes place
What structures are included in the conducting division of the respiratory system?
-nose
-nasopharynx
-larynx
-trachea
-bronchi=extrapulmonary, intrapulmonary
-bronchioles
-terminal bronchioles
What structures are included in the respiratory division of the respiratory system?
-respiratory bronchioles
-alveolar ducts
-alveolar sac
-alveoli
Where are the lungs located?
in the pleural cavity
What is the plerual cavity composed of?
visceral and parietal pleura
What is the hilus portion of the lung?
place on lungs where major structures enter and leave the substance of the lung- such as the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and primary bronchus
What are the different lobulation of the lungs- (different types of lobules)?
-lobes
-broncho-pulmonary segments
-pulmonary or secondary lobules
-primary lobule
What are the different types of lobes in the lungs?
superior, inferior, middle
Can broncho-pulmonary segments be removed without the collapse of the lungs?
yes
What are pulmonary or secondary lobules?
bronchioles and all passageways beyond including the surrounding CT, blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics
What structures are considered pulmonary or secondary lobules?
-bronchioles
-terminal bronchioles
-respiratory bronchioles
-alveolar ducts
-alveolar sacs
What is the primary lobule?
-functional unity of the lungs
-composed of the passageways of the respiratory division including the surrounding CT,blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics
What are the structures of the primary lobule?
-respiratory bronchiole
-alveolar ducts
-alveolar sacs
What are general characteristics of the trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi?
They are tubular organs that have a tunica mucosa, submucosa and tunica adventitia/serosa
What compsoses the mucosa of the trachea and extrapulmonary bronchi?
-pseudostratified columnar epithelium

-lamina propria

-elastic layer
What does the pseudostratified columnar epithelium of mucosa in the trachea and extapulmonary bronchi contain?
-is ciliated
-has goblet cells
-rests on the thickest basement membrane in the body
What type of tissue is in the lamina propria of mucosa in the trachea and extapulmonary bronchi?
loose CT w/ lymphocytes and such involved in anti-inflammatory response
Does the elastic layer of the mucosa in the trachea and extapulmonary bronchi replace the muscularis mucosa?
yes
What does the submucosa of the mucosa in the trachea and extapulmonary bronchi contain?
seromucous glands
What is the tunica adventitia of the mucosa in the trachea and extapulmonary bronchi composed of?
composed of hyaline cartilage covered by perichondrium
Where are glands located in the trachea and extapulmonary bronchi?

What type of glands are present?
-in the back, by the smooth muscle and tracheal muscle
-goblet cells that produce mucous
What is the function of the cilia in the epithelium of the mucosa in the trachea and extapulmonary bronchi?
carries mucous away from the lungs
What is the bronchial tree composed of?
-intrapulmonary primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi
-bronchioles
-terminal bronchioles
The intrapulmonary primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi has what type of epithelium?
pseudostratified columnar epithelium w/ cilia and goblet cells
The intrapulmonary primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi has what instead of the elastic layer?
a true muscular layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosa
The intrapulmonary primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi submucosal glands are what?
seromucous glands that are in the submucosa region
What are the layers of the intrapulmonary primary, secondary, and tertiary bronchi?
from the lumen-
-epithelium
-muscularis muxosa
-submucosal glands
-adventitia
What are characteristics of bronchioles?
-irregular shaped lumen
-no sero-mucous glands
-no cartilage/cartilage plates
-yes, goblet cells
- a combination of simple ciliated columnar and simple ciliated cuboidal epithelium
Is the epithelium still ciliated in the broncholes of smokers?
no
What are some characteristics of terminal bronchioles?
-smooth lumen
-epithelium is simple ciliated cuboidal
-loss of goblet cells
-has cilia
In the respiratory structures of the lung, what type of epithelium is in the respiratory bronchiole?
-contains ciliated simple cuboidal that transitions into simple nonciliated cuboidal
-this is the only place of resipratory tree w/ cilia
Where is the first appearance of alveoli?
in the respiratory bronchiole
What are the alveolar ducts?
-thin walled passage with numerous outpocketings
-smooth muscle forms the ducts, looks like a "drumstick"
-epithelium in simple squamous non-ciliated and simple cuboidal non-ciliated
What are alveolar sacs?
-terminal end of respiratory passages where the alveolar ducts end
-contain 3-5 alveoli
-no smooth muscle
-only simple squamous nonciliated epithelium
-gas exchange occurs here
What type of cells line the wall of the alveoli?
-Type I pneumocytes
-Type II pneumocytes
-alveolar phagocytes/dust cells
What are other names for Type I pneumocytes?
What type of cells are they?
-squamous cell, pulmonary epithelial cell
-simple squamous epithelium lining the surface of the alveolus
What are other names for Type II pneumocytes?
-great alveolar cell, septal cell
What are characteristics for Type II pneumocytes?
-they produce surfactant
-is a cuboidal like cell
-is foamy looking due to surfactant production
What are alveolar phagocytes (dust cells)?
lung macrophages derived from blood monocytes
What is surfactant?
-a thin film along the surface of the alveolus produced by type II pneumocyte that reduces the surface tension to prevent the lung from collapsing
-premature babies have problems because their lungs are not producing surfactant so their alveoli are closed making it difficult to breathe
What is the path of air to the blood?
goes through the type I pneumocyte, basement membrane, and endothelium of capillary