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78 Cards in this Set

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What is involved in fixation and what are two examples of it?
denaturing the proteins. freezing and using aldehydes
What is the point of embedding and what are two common substances commonly used for it
to make the substance stiff enough to cut. wax and plastic resin
what color and nature is hematoxylin
it is basic dye and is purple
what color and nature is eosin
pink and acidic
are proteins acidic or basic?
they are weak bases
what might you use to stain a lipid or a carbohydrate
you might use PAS (periodic acid schiff) or metal impregnation
why do metal impregnation stains look black?
the light is blocked
what are the four types of tissues in the body?
epithelium, connective, muscle, nervous
what is the definition of epithelium
covers body surfaces and constitues secretory portions of glands and their ducts
what are the two ways surface epithelia are classfified?
by the number of layers (simple or stratified) and by the shape of the cells (squamous, cuboidal or columnar)
is epithelium vascular?
no
which type of epithelium to you have to designate as keratinized or not keratinized?
stratified squamous
which type of epithelium is a central, bulge nucleus characteristic of?
simple squamous
where can simple squamous be found in the eye?
corneal endothelium
simple cuboidal epithelium is found in three places in the eye, where?
anterior lens epithelium
anterior myoepithelium of iris
pigmented epithelium of ciliary body
where is simple columnar epithelium located in the eye?
-posterior pigmented epithelium of the iris
-non pigmented epithelium of ciliary body
where is psuedostratified epithelium found in the eye?
nowhere
what is a common characteristic of all non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
they are wet
where is non-keratinized stratified squamous located in the eye?
-puncta and canaliculi of lacrimal system
-corneal epithelium
-bulbar conjuctiva at limbus
-palpebral conjunctiva at near lid margin
what is a main function of non-keratinized stratified squamous
barrier- excellent for resisiting abrasions
where is keratinized stratified squamous epithelium located in the eye?
at the mucocutaneous junctions there is a change from the keratinized epithelium of the skin and the non-keratinized pappebral conjuctiva
how many layers are there always in stratified cuboidal and stratified columnar epithelium in humans?
2
where is stratified columnar epithelium located in the eye?
-conjuctival epithelium in the formix
-palpebral conjuctiva away from the lid margin
-bulbar conjuctiva away from the limbus
what are the two states that transitional epithelium can be in and the characteristics of those states?
contracted- 4 or more layers thick, dome shaped surface cells
distended- 2-3 layers thick, flattened cells.
what are three common structural modifications of an apical domain?
microvilli, steriocillia (or stereovilli) , cilia
what is the main function of microvilli?
increase surface area for absorbtion/secretion
can you see individual microvilli with light microscope?
no. they look like striated border/brush border
what are the cores of microvilli made up of?
actin microfilaments
what do microvilli interact with at their base?
a horizontal network of micro filaments and intermediate filaments known as teh terminal web
what do sterocilli look like?
long microvilli
what arrangment are stereocillia usually found in? what are there function? are they found in eye?
usually in tufts or mats. they work to increase surface area. they are not found in eye
what are cilia made of?
microtubules
what is the very characteristic arrangment of cilia?
9 doublets of microtubules surrounding a single doublet of microtubules
how are the cilia that grow out of basal bodies different?
they have a 9 triplet of microtubules arrangement
what is the function of cilia
motility. move with force back and forth
what are the three main junctional specializations of the lateral domain?
-tight junctions
-anchoring junctions
-gap junctions
what is the function of tight (occluding) junctions?
to prevent leakage between cells
what is the function of anchoring (adhering) junctions?
to mechanically hold cells together.
what are the function of gap junctions?
allow communication between cells by diffusion of small molecules
what is the arrangement (suface to deep) of a junctional complex?
zonula occludens
zonula adherens
desmosome
what is zonula adherens?
a type of junctional specialization. located deep to zonula occludens
what type of cells does a fascia adherens adhering junctions conncet?
cardiac cells
the macula adherens or _______, is similar to zonula adhereins but is smaller and _______.
desmosome, stronger
Gap junctions have a channel made of proteins called _______
connexons
what is a membrane specialization of the basal domain besides the basement membrane and the cell-extracellular membrane junctions.
plicae, a fold that increases surface area
What are the three parts of the
basement membrane?
lamina lucida
lamina densa (contains type 4 collagen)
fibroreticular lamina (contains type 3 collagen)
what are focal adhesions?
they are a type of cell-extracellular matrix junction, they anchor actin filaments of cytoplasm to basement membrane
what are hemidesmosomes?
type of cell-extracellular matrix junction. very strong. anchor intermediate filaments of cytoplasm to basement membrane
How to exocrine glands secrete their products?
directly onto a surface or into epithelial ducts
How do endocrine glands secrete their products?
into the surrounding connective tissue where they enter the vascular system (generally secrete hormones)
how are paracrine glands similarto endocrine glands?
they secrete hormone like substances but the secretions do not usually enter the cascular system
how to autocrine glands work?
autocrine signaling refers to cells that respond to their own secretions
describe merocrine secretion?
none of the cell is lost, only the material is secreted. most glands are merocrine
describe apocrine secretion
secretion gathers in apical part of cell and part of cell becomes the secretion
what are some examples of apocrine glands in the eye?
ciliary (moll's) glands (eyelid)
describe holocrine secretion
entire secreting cell, along with its secretory product, forms the secreted matter of the gland
what is an example of a holocrine gland in the eye?
tarsal (meibomian) glands (eyelid)
what is an example of a unicellular exocrine glands?
a goblet cell
where can goblet cells be found in eye?
bulbar and fornix conjuctiva (produce mucous layer of tear film)
what are the three ways the arrangement of secretory cells can be described?
tubular
acinar (or alveolar)
tubuloalveolar (or tubuloacinar)
what are the three ways a tubular arrangement can be described?
straight
coiled
branched
what ways can an acinar arrangement be desribed?
single or branched
What are the designations "simple" and "compound" referring to?
simple is referring to the duct being unbranched and compound is referring to the duct being branched
Where in the eye can simple coiled tubular glands be found?
glands of moll
where are two places simple branched acinar glands can be found in eye?
meibomian glands and glands of zeis. both in eyelids
where could you find compound tubuloacinar glands in eye?
lacrimal glands
what are the characteristics of mucus secretion?
high carb content
slippery
with H&E dyes cell looks empy because carbs are not acids or bases
what are the characteristics of serous secretions?
proteins, watery. appear purple because basal part of cell but secretion is purple
mixed?
both serous and mucous acini in gland
what does the stroma of the gland do?
it is the supporting connective tissu framework holding gland together
what are the two parts of the stroma?
the capsule (surrounds outside of gland) and the septa
what does the septa do?
extends into the interior of gland and divide it into lobules of parenchyma
what is the parenchyma?
the functional part of the gland
which cells surround the grand and aid in the secretion?
myoepithelial cells (dialator pupillae is composed of myoepitherlial cells)
what are the types of ducts associated with exocrine glands?
intercalated ducts
intralobular ducts
interlobular ducts
main duct of gland
describe intercalated ducts
usually attach directly to secretory cells (usualy acini) usually simple cuboidal, they are within lobule
describe intralobular ducts
usually simple columnar. unions of intercalated ducts, still within lobule
describe interlobular ducts
unions of intralobular ducts
usually stratified cuboidal
in septa between lobules