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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the function of the ovary?
To provide a proper enviornment or the development of the ova
What is the ovarian blood supply?
Aorta -> ovarian artery -> helicine arteries
What are the main functions of the ovary?
At what stage does an oocyte have antral fluid?
Secondary oocyte
How many follicular cell layers are found in the primordial follicle?
One layer
What follicle has a lot of antral space?
Mature or Graafian follice
What is the cumulus oophorus?
Portion of granulosa cells that anchors the oocyte inside the follicle, part of it goes with the oocyte when it ruptures through the surface of the ovary
When the oocyte ruptures through the ovary, what goes with it?
Corona radiata, follicular cells, and some of the cumulus oophorus
What does the antral fluid become?
liquor folliculi
About how many oocytes are formed? How many are used?
Out of 400,000 formed, only about 400 are used
How many potential oocytes are there at each ovulation?
20 - the other 19 are thought to act as booster to perform endocrine function and maintain uterine lining
In what division is the female oocyte arrested?
First meiotic division - because follicular cells, granulosa cells surround oocyte and stop meiosis
Is the primary oocyte diploid or haploid?
What stage does the oocyte become haploid?
Secondary follicles - primary oocyte enlarges and undergoes meiotic division
When is meiosis I completed?
After detachment of oocyte/zona pellucida/carona complex from cumulus oophorus
What is the ovarian cycle divided into?
"Follicular phase - development of the follicle
What do granulosa cells secrete?
Estradiol which acts on endometrium to prepare for pregnancy
What causes ovulation?
Release of LH - positive feedback from estadiol on anterior pituitary
What stage of the follicle do LH receptors appear?
Graafian follicle
What is a major cause of infertility?
Luteal phase deficiency - up until 12th week, corpus luteum maintains the placenta
What is the treatment for luteal phase deficiency?
Progesterone injections until human chorionic gonadotropin levels are high enough to maintain placenta
How is luteal phase deficiency diagnosed?
After temperature drop during ovulation, if endometrial biopsy not robust - luteal phase deficiency
What is the major steroid product of follicular cells under stimulation by FSH?
Estradiol - but depend on supply of androstendione by theca interna cells regulated by LH
Why can't follicular cells produce estradiol independently?
Do not have enzmes to produce precursor of estradiol - rely on theca interna cells to supply androstendedione
What seperates the theca interna and externa from the follicular cells?
Basal lamina
What is the differential for hemmorhage versus menstrual flow?
Blood in menstrual secretions does not clot
What is a major cause of menstrual cramps?
Some endometrial tissue deposits in the peritoneal
What is the main cause of ovulation pain?
Blood and inflammation of the peritoneal lining when the ovary ruptures
How long is the window of fertilization?
24 hours
How long is the endometrial lining maintained?
7 days
What is the dying corpus luteum?
Corpus albicans
What do the non ciliated cells of the oviduct produce?
Secretion to assist in moving the oocyte down the duct towards the uterus
What is the hormone responsive tissue of the uterus?
Stratum functionalis
How is the uterine smooth muscle different from other muscle?
It can increase via hyperplasia instead of hypertrophy as with other muscle
What is charateristic of the late proliferative stage of the stratum functionalis?
Straight glands
What vascularization maintains the enometrium?
Spiral arteries
What is only the functional layer of the endometrium shed during menses?
Basal layer is supplied by basal straight arteries and is unaffected by the constriction of the spiral arteries
What period is marked by torturous glands in the stratum functionalis?
Proliferatory period
What period is characterized by saw tooth appearance of glands in the stratum functionalis?
Mid secratory period - glycogen accumulates in the basal portion
When does glycogen shift to the apical portion of the stratum functionalis?
Final days of the secratory phase, decidual change
What type of spermatid cycles through mitosis?
Spermatagonia Type A
What stage of sperm development does first mitosis occur?
Primary spermatocytes -> secondary spermatocytes
What is a prespermatagoonium?
Cell that undergoes mitotic cell division to produce two daughter cell - one stem cell and one for mitotic amplification
What do type B spermatagonia do?
Complete S phase and advance to G but instead move to adluminal space and undergo meiosis I
What is incomplete cytokinesis?
Cytoplasmic bridges between developing sperm that do not disappear until the completion of spermatogensis
What are residual bodies?
Cytoplasmic connections between spermatids that are released by spermination. Residual bodies are phagocytosed by stertoli cells
What receptor binds to the Sperm receptor?
What is released to initiate the acrosome reaction?
How are acrosomal enzymes released in the acrosomal reaction?
What organelle does the sperm provide that the egg lacks?
Centrioles - the first mitotic spindle is assembled in the zygote
What comprises the connecting piece?
Proximal centriole attached to the nucleus and the distal centriole that generates the axoneme
What is the arrangement of the microtubules in the axoneme?
9 + 2 surrounded only by plasma membrane
What surrounds the microtubular axoneme in the middle piece?
9 outer dense fibers
What is the main difference between the middle piece and the principal and end piece?
Mitochondrial helix found only in middle piece
What is the site where the middle piece turns into the principal piece?
Annulus - dense ring subadjacent to the last turn of the mitochondrial helix
What is septin 4?
Major component of the annulus
Which part of the epididymis is more muscular - head or tail?
What marks the transition from the seminiferous epithelium to the tubulus rectus?
Columnar stertoli cells
How do the junctions between stertoli cells change from seminiferous epithelium to tubulus rectus?
Apical to basal
What cells does leuteinizing hormone primarily act on?
Leydig cells - L to L
What cell does FSH primarily act on in males?
Sertoli cells
What are the cell types of the ductulus efferens?
Tall columnar ciliated and short non ciliated
How does the muscle change as the epididymis progresses to the vas deferens?
Increasing muscle layers from 1 to 3
What do epididymal principal cells secrete?
Carnitine, sialic acid, glyocproteins and glycerylphosphorylcholine
Where is stereocilia found in the male repro tract?
In the epididymis on the apical surface of principal cells
What are the three muscular layers of the vas deferens?
Inner longitudinal, circular, and outer longitudinal
What kind of epithelium is found in the seminal vesicle?
Pseudostratified columnar secretory with lipid droplets
What percent of volume do the seminal vesicles contribute to semen?
more than half
Is sperm stored in the seminal vesicles?
What is the secretion of the seminal vesicles?
Fructose, prostaglandins, and coagulating proteins
How many muscle layers does the seminal vesicle have?
2 - Outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers
What kinds of glands does the prostate have?
Branched tubulo acinar
What are the two cell layers lining the glands of the prostate?
"Outer low cuboidal layter and inner tall columnar mucin secreting epithelium
What is tissue between the prostate glands called?
The fibromuscular stroma - compose half the volume of the prostate
What are corpora amylacea?
Small hyaline masses of unkown significance found in the prostate gland - may calcify with age
What cells are the main source of five alpha reductase?
Prostatic stromal cells
What is the usual site for beginning benign prostatic hyperplasia?
Submucosal glands
What are the three layers of prostatic glands?
Mucosal, submucosal, and main prostatic glands
Where do nodules usually form in BHP?
Periurethral region
What does the prostate secrete?
Citric acid, zinc, amylase, PSA, and acid phosphatase
What surrounds the three cylindrical muscle masses of the penis?
Tunica albuginea