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55 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
type of CT that has the fewest cells and the most intercellular substance per unit volume
dense irregular CT
what would a decrease in plasma proten cause?
what does ECM contain?
tissue fluid
collagen fibers
in response to injury, neutrophils leave the circluation and enter the injured site by squeezing their way into the CT between endothilial cells of the post cap venules. what is this process called?
connective tissue
basic type of tissue that give structural and metabolic support for other tissue like epithelium

consists of ECM and few cells
2 main types of CT
CT proper
CT proper
continuum based on amt of cells and fibers. binds together and comparmentalizes othe tissues and organs. it is made of cells and matrix
types of CT proper
dense irregular
dense regular
loose CT
more hydrated
has more cells
less collagon
called areolar CT

darker staining
dense irregular CT
few cells
more collagon
darker staining
dense regular CT
fewer cells than loose
more collagon than loose
collagon fibers in parallel
nuclei are parallel
specialized CT
form rigid supporting body structures like cartliage,bone,blood, adipose,hematopoietic tissue
2 major componenets of CT proper
cells and matrix
types of cells in CT proper
-permanet residents of CT
-mast cells
-plasma cells
-only enter due to injury
what makes up matrix in CT proper
-reticular fibers
ground substance
principle cell of CT
role of fibroblasts
produce and degrade both fibers and ground substance of matrix.
What do fibroblast look like?
tapered, fusiform cells, spindle shape if inactive and stellate shape is active

limited mobility due to contact inhibition
difference in appearance between active and inactive fibroblasts
active fibroblast]
ovoid/pale nucleus
abundant euchromatin
basophillic cytoplasm
stellate shape
long slender processes

inactive fibroblast
small nucleus/darkly stain
cytoplasm is light
principle fiber of CT
principle fiber of CT
flixible w/hi tensile strngth

consists of bundles of collagon fibrils which are made of polymerized tropocollagon molceules made by fibroblasts
production of collagon by fibroblasts
1.preprocollgon made which has alpha chains w/registration peptides

2.hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues in the ER (this process depends on Vit C)

3.hydroxylation causes a triple helix to form

4.procollagon is form by alpha chain triple helix it is sent to golgi for post translation modification

5.prolcollagon is excreted into ECM and the registration peptides are cleaved to make active tropocollagen

6.tropocollagen aggregates to make collagen fibrils which is just tropocollagen alligned in head to tail fasion
what does triple helix formation of procollagon depend on?
alpha chain hydroxolyation which is dependent on Vit C
Types I collagon
most abundant
type II collagen fibers
seen in cartilage
Type III collagen
collagenous component of reticular fibers. associated w/type I
Type IV collagen
seen in basal lamina
reticular fibers
very fine collagenous fibers that are type III collagen fibers

v. highly branched

give structural support to organs like pancrease,liver, and lymph nodes
only way to identify reticular fibers
stained by SILVER STAIN
elastic fibers
made of elastin glycoprotein deposited on microfibrils

occurs as branching fibers and as sheets
what are elastic fibers made of?

which is elastin glycoproteins depostited on microfibrils

lots of stretch/very thin thread fibers
only way to ID elastic fibers
ground substance seen in matrix
amorphous intercellular substance made by fibroblasts

the princple components of ground substance are glycosoaminoglycasn, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins
hyaluronic acid, chondrotin sulfate, ets.

hi negative charge so it attracts water and allows the CT to be hydrated
GAG chains covalentsly boulnd to protein
fibronectin and lamin
excess water and tissue fluid in CT due to lost of hydation in CT caused by injury or inflammation

fluid escapes from blood caps faster than it can be reabsorben into lymph caps. the excess fluit allows cells to move around in CT to the site of antigens and debris
how does water go from capillaries to CT
hi hydrostatic pressure and lo colloidal osmotic pressure
where does fluid when it leave CT?
goes to lymph or enters venous side of capillaries

due to lo hydrostatic pressure and hi osmotic pressure
ancestor cells of CT
mesenchymal cells
what do mesenchymal cells
characteristics of macrophages
retain capacity for division
derived from monocytes

act as Ag presenting cells to Blymphocytes to make them bcome plasma cells
plasma cells
Ab producing cell
derived from Blymphocyte
NOT found in Blood stream
Id plasma cells
eccentrically located nucleus with specail cartwheel pattern

alternating heterochromatin and euchromatin
Mast cell
long lived cell in CT
located near BV

has granules that release heparin,histamin, and eosinophilic chemotactic factor in response to trauma
what are in granules of mast cells?
eosinophilic chem. factor
only place you see basophils
in blood not CT
how are mast cells activated?
Ag engulfed by macrophage so Ag is shown to Blymph. B lymph becomes plamsa cell which makes IgE. IgE become receptors for mast cell so that when you have a 2nd exposure to the Ag mast cells release histamine,heparin, and eosin C. Factor

the histamin increases vascular permeability and the heperain is an anti coag.
both hlp cells have acess from BS
Uniolocular fat
white adipose

small lipid droplets thatfuse to become one huge fat glob

allows lipid storage and mobilization

eccentric n.
multiocular fat cells
brown fat

thermogenic bc mitochondrial enzymes uncoupled to ATP cause heat

seen in specific locations in newborns

lipids are small drops not big like uniocular
immigrant cells that only are seen during inflam

small cells w/spheroid nucleus and small amt of cytoplasm so looks like black little resins

2 types T/B
short lived granulocytes
found in BS and CT

migrates to CT in response to chemotactic factors

has antiinflam histaminidase to break down histamine from mast cells. eosionphils basically control the mast cells

bilobed n. w/ red eosin dots
most abundant granulocyte

first line of denfense

have antibac. enzymes

cannot undergo cell dvision

found during acute inflam

highly lobulaed n. w/pink cytoplasm
bacteria + dead neutrophils
most abundant fibers ini CT
collagen fibers are princple and most abundant fiber of CT