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37 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is connective tissue composed of?
Cells and extracellular matrix.
What does ECM consist of?

What two general types of cells are there in CT?
Fibers, structural glycoproteins, and the amorphous ground substance.

FIXED (resident) e.g. fibroblast, adipocyte
FREE (transient) e.g. mast cell, macrophage, plasma cell, leukocytes
What is the quintessential connective tissue cell ?
What is its function and characteristics?
largely responsible for the production and maintenance of the extracellular matrix,
quiescent of active, work-horse, very active in wound repair, euchromatic nucleus, tons of RER in active cells
What is a key transient cell that is part of the body's mononuclear phagocyte system?What is its function?
Plays a variety of roles in tissue scavenging and immunological defense.
What kind of cell is a mast cell? What is its function and characteristics?
transient cells of connective tissue. It releases heparin, histamine and other substances in response to IgE-triggered immune reactions, similar to basophils, metachromatic granuals which are discharged when antigen binds onto the surface IgE
What role does neutrophils play? What kind of cell type is it?
role in the phagocytosis of invading bacteria.
what is the predominant fibrous element found in the extracellular matrix ?
describe the biosynthesis of collagen
RER to golgi to vesicle.
make pro-alpha chains (3), do hydroxlation to get triple helix (procollagen), secrete into cove, cleave propeptides to get tropocollagen, which self assembles into fibrils outside the cell, which aggregate and form collagen fibers.
Why is the hydroxylation of proline and lysine residues on collagen important?
what is an important factor/substance needed for this process?
necessary for hydrogen bonding among the subunitalpha-chains
Vitamin C
why is the activity of lysyl oxidase important?
what is an important factor/substance needed for this process?
necessary for covalent bond formation among tropocollagen molecules in fibril formation
Vitamin C
Which type of collagen is most abundant/widespread distribution?
Type I
which type of cartilage is reticular fibers and argyrophilic?
which type is found predominantly in cartilage?
Type III

Type II
which type of collagen is non-fibril forming and a major component of basement membranes?
type IV
what is the basic structure of elastic fibers?
what are the two elements contained in the elastic molecule giving it its elastic properties?
protein elastin on a scaffolding of fibrillin-containing microfibrils

desmosine and isodesmosine
what three elements are part of the ECM?
fibers, ground substance, and glycoproteins
what ecm are laminin and fibronectin ? what is their role?
structural glycoproteins,
play an important role in linking elements of the extracellular matrix to each other and to cells within or abutting the connective tissue.
what two things is the ground substance made of?

what is the role of ground substance?
viscous, hydrated gel of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs, long disaccharide repeats), proteoglycans (GAGs attached to proteins)
binding extracellular water, nutrients, electrolytes, hormones
what are some specialized types of connective tissue?
adipose, elastic, hematopoietic, and mucous tissue
what are the two types of adipose tissue and which is most abundant?
white (abundant)
brown (for generation of heat using uncoupling enzymes in mitochondria)
what are characteristics of the Mononuclear Phagocytic System?
All cells highly phagocytic.
Derived from bone marrow precursors
Contain lots of lysosomes
Surface receptors for immunoglobulin (Fc) and complement -- which recognize opsonized particles and trigger phagocytosis
what are characteristics of macrophages?
Differentiate from monocytes in blood
Long-lived in the connective tissue
Phagocytic and antigen presenting cells
Present in most organs
Many names in different tissues:
Kupffer cells-Liver
Langerhans cells-Skin
come from monocytes in blood.
nucleus is euchromatic
what is the single most important cell in wound healing?
describe how one develops hypsensitivity.
antigen introduced to body, B cells process and become plasma cells, which make IgE, which sit on surface of mast cell. When mast cell encounters antigen that cross-links IgE, get massive degran (histamine, heparine, etc released)
what are the effects of epinephrine that help in anaphylaxis?
stimulates vasocontriction, raising blood pressure, causes bronchodilation
what is role of plasma cell? where does it come from?
what does it look like under scope?
differentiates from B cells, makes antibodies, lots of RER and golgi
Describe Type I collagen
most abundant
dermis, tendons, ligaments bone
(first you stand)
Describe Type II collagen

(on your two ears)
Describe Type III collagen
reticular fibers
(flip three times over meshy organs)
Describe Type IV collagen
basement membranes,
lacy network
no fibers
(watch out "four" lacy basement with no fibers)
what does collagen look like under EM?
striated fibers
what is Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?
Disorder of Collagen
Hypermobility of joints
Dermal hyperelasticity
Widespread tissue fragility
Fleshy outgrowths
Aortic and digestive tract rupture possible
what 2 proteins are found in elastic fibers?
what two AAs are responsible for covalent bonding between elatins?
elastin, fibrillin (forms sheath)
Desmosine and isodesmosine
what is function of glycoproteins?
what are two structural glycoproteins?
adhere CT, cells, epithelia
sits along membrane, helps connect epithelia to structures below in connective tissue
what is ground substance? its role?
what makes up proteoglycans? role?
Hydrated gel in which cells, fibers, and proteins are embedded. Essential for diffusion of nutrients.

Protein core with GAGs covalently attached. Make space for water, hydrate CT.
characteristics of loose and dense Ct
Loose (Areolar) - all irregular
Lots of cells
Fewer fibers
Lots of ground substance

Fewer cells
Lots of fibers
Little ground substance
what is one location where you find mucous CT?
umbilical cord
functions and characteristics of adipose?
White and Brown (aka, unilocular and multiplocular)
Well vascularized
Padding, Insulation, Energy storage,
Heat production (multilocular)