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11 Cards in this Set

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What are the two ways cartilage grows? What are the specifics of the growth types?
Appositional Growth:
Chondroblasts DIFFERENTIATE and become chondrocytes
Occurs at the perichondrium (edge of cartilage)

Interstitial Growth:
Chondrocytes DIVIDE to increase numbers. Occurs in cartilage matrix. Leads to isogenous nests,
How does bone grow? What are the two subtypes of this growth?

What does bone not do?
Appositional Growth:
Osteoprogenitor cells DIFFERENTIATE and become osteoblasts and osteocytes
Occurs at the periosteum (edge of bone)
Two Types:
Endochondral Ossification
Intramembranous Ossification

Bone DOES NOT do Interstitial Growth
Osteocytes DO NOT DIVIDE
What are the specifics of the two types of appositional growth?
Appositional Growth:

Intramembranous Ossification:
De novo bone formation
Osteoprogenitor cells develop from mesenchyme and become osteoblasts to begin laying down bone.
Bones of the skull, bone collar form this way.

Endochondral Ossification:
Cartilage scaffolding is replaced by bone. Most bones in body form this way.
what is the epiphysis?
the diaphysis?
heads of long bones,
the shaft of long bones
what kind of growth of cartilage and bone leads to the longitudinal growth of long bones?
what kind of growth contributes to lateral growth(widening) of long bones? intramembranous ossification.
cartilage at plates grows via intersitial growth, so cells dividing.
cartilage replaced via bone endochondral ossification

subperiosteal intramembranous ossification
what are the 4-5 zones found at epiphyseal plate?
zones of:
when is growth in length a long bone no longer possible?
once have closure of the epiphysis
but bone can continue to grow in girth via intramembranous ossific.
what is first bone type that is always produced? what occurs then if bone is to be cancellous type?
compact type?
woven (cancellous, trabecular) bone. If to be cancellous, only need to replace primary bone with lamellar bone.
If to be cortical bone, spaces amongst traveculae must be filled in. All the immature bone is replaced eventually with lamellar bone in osteon formations.
what are the zones at the growth plate?
Zone of Reserve
Zone of Proliferation
Zone of Hypertrophy
Zone of Calcification
Zone of Resorption
what is bone modeling?
how is it the same/different from bone remodeling?
SELECTIVE bone resorption and deposition during skeletogenesis... continually reshape bones in response to the forces applied to them.
remodeling very similar, happens throughout life... occurs on surfaces of trabecular bone and in the resorption cavities of compact bone.
Cartilage, unlike bone, can enlarge by two types of growth. What are the types and where do these two growth processes occur?
Appositional growth = perichondrium (cells differentiate blasts --> cytes)
Interstitial growth = in cartilage matrix (cells divide, make isogenous nests).