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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the histological classification of cartilage?
Connective Tissue that is specialized for structural support.
What are some characteristics of cartilage?
Flexible, compressible; Avascular, without lymphatics or nerves
What are the 2 basic componenets of cartilage?
Chondrocytes (contained with in lucunae, produce EC matrix).

EC Matrix: Fibers (type II collagen), Ground substace (GAGs, chondriotin and karatan sulfate; - charge so h2o is tightly boud; hyalunronic acid; glycoproteins)
what are lacunae?
potential spaces that house chondrocytes
what is "territorial matrix"?
martrix immediately surrounding lacunae
what is interterritorial matrix?
matrix that is not related to the Haversian system; inbetween Haversian systems
what does the perichondrium consist of?
dense irregular CT present in 2 layers:
-outer fiberous layer (type I collagen)
-inner chondrogenic layer: composed of type II collagen that gives rise to chondroblasts
what is the progression of cartilage formation?
1. Begins at "centers of chondrification" where matrix secretion begins
2. Mesenchymal cells condense to become chondroblasts, which begin to secrete a matrix
3. chondroblasts become entrapped in matrix and are called chondrocytes
4. Chondrocytes are then capable of cell division
T/F cartilage grows both appositionally and interstially?
Define "interstitial growth"
growth that occurs within the existing model; forms "isogenous" groups; this happens when chondrocytes divide.
Define "appositional growth"
growth that occurs only at the surface of cartilage. This is how the perichondrium is produced (mesenchymal cells condense to form fibroblasts which secrete matrix that forms the perichondrium).
What type of tissue is the perichondrium?
Dense Irregular CT
What are the characteristics of hyaline cartilage?
Homogenous; no visible fibers: type II matrix.
Where does hyalin cartilage appear in the body?
Ventral ribs, nasal cartilages, trachea, bronchi, cricoid and thyroid cartilage.

Occurs in the fetal skeleton, articular cartilage, and the epiphyseal plate
What are the characteristics of elastic cartilage?
Elastic Fibers in matrix (special Verhoff stain!!); some type II collagen with an increase in the # of chondrocytes, larger chondrocytes.
where in the body is elastic cartilage found?
External Ear, Eustachian tube, Epiglottis (note: Elastic = EEE)
What are the characteristics of Fiberous Cartilage?
Somewhere inbetween hyaline and elastic cart. Type I collagen is prominent, NO perichondrium, increased tensile strength.

Fiberous due to collage bundles; chondrocytes appear in elongated clusters of single rows; isogenous groups are common.
Where in the body is fiberous collagen found?
At the insertion of ligaments and tendons, and articular joints (TMJ)
what is articular cartilage?
calcified cartilage between articular cavity and bone (matrix is calcified); is composed of hyaline cartilage with no perichondrium.
what are synovial joints?
joints that allow free movement between adjacent bones; the joint cavity at the surface of articular cartilage.
how are bones held together at the synovial joint?
by ligaments surrounding the fiberous capsule.
what is the fiberous capsule composed of?
synovial fluid secreted by synovial cells.
what does the synovial fluid contain?
what does the synovial fluid do?
lubricates the joint
what is the external fiberous layer of the synovial joint composed of?
dense irregular CT
how is cartilage repaired?
repair may occur by recruiting cells in the perichondrium or synovial membrane, but it is unpredictable due to the fact that cartilage is avascular; a scar of dense CT may form instead.