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69 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how do you distinguish various types of arteries and veins?
thickness of vascular wall
tunica intima has what kind of cells lining interior surface?
This layer is beneath endothelium and consists of delicate lose connective tissue.
subendothelial layer
Main component of tunica media
circumferentially arranged smooth muscle cells
separation layer between tunica media and tunica intima
internal elastic lamina
separation layer between tunica media and tunica adventitia in larger vessels
external elastic lamina
primary component of tunica adventitia
CT made of fibroblasts and associated collagen fibers
what provides nutrients to adventitia and media in larger vessels?
vasa vasorum (small blood vessels)
polygonal, elongated cells that have many pinocytotic vesicles and form junctional complexes with their neighbors
endothelial cells
6 synthetic and metabolic properties of endothelial cells
1. maintenance of non-thrombogenic blood-tissue interface
2. modulation of blood flow and vascular resistance
3. metabolism of hormones
4. regulate immune and inflammatory rxns
5. modification of lipoproteins during transport in artery wall
6. growth reg of other cell types i.e. smooth muscle cells
T/F: smooth muscle cells are an important element of vascular repair processes
cell and nuclei shape of resting smooth muscle cells
spindle shaped with single, elongated nuclei
3 classifications of arteries
elastic (conducting), muscular (distribution), and arterioles
examples of large elastic arteries
pulmonary, aorta, brachiocephalic, subclavian, common carotid, common iliac
what type of arteries would you find the tunica media that is made of multiple concentric, fenestrated lamellae of elastin alternating w/ layers of smooth muscle, fibers of collagen and elastin and proteoglycans
large elastic arteries
components of tunica adventitia in elastic arteries
fibroblasts and longitudinal bundles of collagen fibers and loose network of elastic fibers
how do capillaries penetrate the media through the adventitia in elastic arteries?
through vasa vasorum
examples of muscular arteries
branchial, femoral, radial, popliteal and their branches
do muscular or elastic arteries have a thinner intima?
difference in the media bw muscular and elastic arteries
muscular have more smooth muscle and less elastin
arrangement of muscle cells in muscular arteries
they are circumferentially oriented and closely packed in a parallel way
in musular arteries, is media or adventitia thicker?
what constitutes the principal component of peripheral resistance to flow that regulates bp
what is present in large arterioles but absent in terminal arterioles?
thin fenestrated internal elastic lamina
vessels of the short trasitional region bw arterioles and capillaries is called...
slight thickening of smooth muscle at origin of capillary bed from an arteriole
precapillary sphincter
structural function of AV shunt
allow blood to bypass capillaries by providing direct routes bw arteries and veins
innervation of AV shunts
adrenergic and cholinergic periadventitial nerves
where does contraction/relaxation of arteriole smooth muscle of AV shunt send the blood?
contraction - to capillary bed
relaxation - to venule
physiological function of AV shunt
serves in thermoregulation at body surface
what structure consists of extremely attenuated endothelial cells w/ their basal lamina supported by a sparse network of reticular fibers
capillary wall
what are the major sites of exchange of gases and metabolites? and why?
capillaries, bc of thin wall and close physical assoc w/ metabolically active cells
what are scattered along the outside of capillaries?
function of pericytes
contractile cells that help in the control of blood flow through microvessels
3 types of capillaries
continuous, fenestrated, discontinuous (sinusoids)
where do you find continuous capillaries?
in muscle, lung, and CNS
which type of capillary can have 2 plasma membranes enclosing a ribbon of cytoplasm that may include the nucleus w/ at least 1 occluding junction?
which type of capillary has numerous pinocytotic vesicles that underlie both liminal and basal plasma mem surfaces (except in CNS)?
how do fenestrated capillaries in GI tract and gallbladder appear when no absorption is occurring?
fewer fenestrae and thicker wall
what do fenestrated capillaries look like when absorption is occurring?
thin walls and rapidly increasing number of pinocytotic vesicles and fenestrae
type of capillary that is a vascular channel of relatively large caliber and irregular cross-sectional outline
where do you find discontinuous capiillaries?
liver, bone marrow, certain endocrine glands and lymphoid organs
which capillaries take the shape of the spaces bw epithelial sheets and cords of the organ that they supply?
which system has greater capacity? why?
venous - bc more numerous and have larger lumen
examples of large veins
inferior vena cava, portal, splenic, superior mesenteric, external iliac, renal
relative sizes of media and adventitia in large veins
media - thin
adventitia - thick
what are the semilunar valves in large veins made of?
thin fold of intima reinforced by thin layer of collagen in a network of elastic fibers
examples of medium veins
cutaneous and deeper veins of extremities, head, and many in viscera
which layer in medium veins has small bundles of smooth muscle intermixed with collagen and elastic fibers?
which layer of medium veins is well developed
which type of vessels are characterized by an imtima of endothelium, a thin media that may consist of none to a few layers of smooth muscle and an adventitial layer which is the thickest and made of CT rich in collagenous fibers
venules and small veins
how are muscular venules different from postcapillary venules?
muscular venules have a tunica media that is 1 or 2 layers of smooth muscle
what are the sites of emigration of white blood cells from the vessel during inflammation?
postcapillary venules
in what structures do the postcapillary venules have cuboidal and not squamous endothelial cells?
in lymph nodes and peyer's patches
where do the lymphatic ducts merge with the venous system?
at the great veins at the base of the neck
lymphatics are found in all tissues except...
CNS, cartilage, bone and bone marrow, thymus, teeth, placenta
what is the main function of the lymph vascular system?
return fluid and plasma proein that escape the circulation, and add lymphocytes and antibodies
what lines each surface of the interventricular septum?
this structure, in the heart, serves as a support and is composed of dense connective tissue
fibrous skeleton
what layer of the heart unites the myocardium and endocardium which contains veins, nerves and branches of the impulse-conducting system
subendothelial layer of CT
which layer of the heart is responsible for pumping blood through the circulation
what type of epithelium covers the outside of epicardium?
simple squamous epithelium (mesothelium)
which heart layer does adipose tissue generally accumulate in?
in which area does the epicardium become continuous with the parietal pericardium?
around the roots of the aorta and pulmonary artery
what structure on the heart contains a small amt of fluid that permits the smooth mesothelial surfaces of epicardium and parietal pericardium to glide over e/o during contraction and relaxation
pericardial cavity
the valves are made of and covered with what type of tissue?
valves are made of a center sheet of fibrous tissue and surfaces are covered with endothelium
what structures are modified cardiac muscle cells that are specialized to conduct impulses
AV bundle, bundle branches nad Purkinje fibers
where are ganglionic nerve cells and nerve fibers in the heart?
in the region close to the SA and AV nodes
what affects heart rhythm with parasympathetic stimulation slowing and sympathetic accelerating the rhythm?
ganglionic nerve cells and fibers around SA and AV nodes