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147 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
these structures provide protection, insulation, nourisment and support to neurons
glia
most peripheral ganglia have an origin from what, embryologically?
neural crest
what part of the neuron has the ability to transmit signals over long distances?
axon
what part of neuron receives info?
dendrites
neurons are postmitotic cells, which means what?
unable to divide, once a neuron dies, it is not replaced
why do sensory neurons tend to be round?
bc they only have one process and no synaptic input
size of neuron cell body
4-120 microns
general rule: large soma = ?
large axon = fast conduction
structure that contains the nucleus with abundant euchromatin actively transcribing DNA with prominent basophilic nucleus
perikaryon
structure of cell body that is the dominant cytoplasmic organelle, cisternae are grouped and interspersed with numerous free ribosomes that are actively synthesizing
RER
basophilic stained ribosomes as seen with light microscope
Nissl bodies
what indicates a highly active cell that is engaged in vesicular transport?
numerous mitochondria and golgi
microtubules in cell body are involved in what?
vesicular transport
neurofilaments in cell body are involved in what?
cytoskeleton support
what accumulates with age in cell body?
lipofuscin granules
proximally, what are the basic features of dendrites?
same as cell body
distally, what are the basic features of dendrites?
Nissl substance decreases, cytoplasm is dominated by microtubules and smooth ER
what is the branching pattern of dendrites that distinguishes each different neuronal type?
taper and branch
small extensions from dendrites that vary both in size and number among neurons and are receptive structures for axon terminals forming synapses
dendrite spines
what is the conduction pattern for most dendrites?
they conduct potentials passively, in a decremental fashion over distance
What area of the axon has no Nissl bodies?
hillock
main components of axon cytoplasm
mostly microtubules and neurofilaments, no ribosomes or RER
swellings at the axon's end which contact other neurons or excitable tissues, such as muscle cells, to transmit info
axon terminals or boutons
one neuron can receive up to how many axon terminals?
up to 10,000
type of transport that moves materials in the neuron and takes advantage of the cytoskeleton to do so. disrupting the skeleton stops transport.
axoplasmic transport
function of retrograde transport
recycling and viral transport
retrograde transport is mediated by what?
cytoplasmic dynein
anterograde transport is mediated by what?
kinesin
what structures perform fast anterograde transport (400 mm/day)?
synaptic vesicles and mitochondria
what structures perform slow anterograde transport (1-2mm/day)?
proteins and enzymes, regrowing axons during regeneration
the working end of the axon is called ?
synapse
3 distinct elements that contribute to the synaptic junction
presynaptic membrane, axon terminal, postsynaptic membrane
connection from axon to postsynaptic cell body is called?
axosomatic
from axon to postsynaptic dendrite is called?
predendritic
synapse bw axon and spine of dendrite is called?
axospinous synapse
interneuronal interactions that occur through gap junctions are called wat?
nonsynaptic communication
what is it called when all activity in one neuron would be transferred to the connected neuron w/o synaptic delay?
nonsynaptic communication
location of synaptic vesicles
axon terminal
which synaptic vesicles contain excitatory neurotransmitter?
round vesicles
which synaptic vesicles contain inhibitory neurotransmitter?
polymorphic vesicles
what is used to localize neurotransmitters or enzymes used in the synthesis of the neurotransmitters?
immunocytochemistry and enzyme histochemistry
function of peptide use in neurotransmission
modulate effects of classical neurotransmitters
examples of peptides used in neurotransmission
LHRH, NPY, galanin, substance P
groups of neural cell bodies in PNS
ganglia
groups of axons or sensory fibers in PNS
nerves
groups of cell bodies in CNS
nuclei
layers of cell bodies in CNS
cortices
groups of axons in CNS
tracts, pathways, fasiculi
everything except the cell bodies that is present in gray matter of CNS
neuropil
examples of neuropil
dendrites, myelinated and unmyel axons, glial cells, blood vessels, synapses
glial component of PNS comes from what, embryologically?
neural crest
these insulate peripheral axons and produce myelin
schwann cells
these insulate cell bodies in ganglia
satellite cells
CNS is mostly from what origin?
neural tube
these provide communication/insulation bw neurons and blood vessels and also insulate nodes of Ranvier and synaptic regions in CNS
astrocytes
these insulate central axons as the cells that make myelin sheaths which also produce a protein that actively inhibits regeneration in CNS
oligodendrocytes
phagocytic cell of CNS
microglia
origin of microglia
bone marrow
epithelial lining of fluid-filled space of CNS
ependyma
a single length of myelin along an axon
internode
groove at the end of Schwann cell wrapping
inner and outer mesaxons
process of compaction
schwann cell cytoplasm is forced out of the membrane of myelin
what structures are engulfed by a single glial process?
unmyelinated axons
major dense lines are formed by fusion of what?
inner myelin membrane (3nm thick)
intraperiod lines are formed by fusion of what?
outer myelin membranes (1.5-2nm thick)
what occurs where cell body undergoes breakup of RER and nuclear changes?
retrograde chromatolysis
what occurs as the distal axon fragment is separated from the metabolic support of the cell body?
anterograde (wallerian) degeneration
main components of PNS
nerves and ganglia
collections of sensory or autonomic neural cell bodies
ganglia
what are the plexuses of the PNS?
cervical, brachial, lumbosacral, cardiopulmonary, preaortic, myenteric, hypogastic/pelvic
what are splanchnic nerve pathways of PNS?
thoracic, lumbar, sacral, pelvic
node of ranvier in PNS is covered by what?
schwann cell cytoplasm
what is the outer collar of schwann cell cytoplasm called?
neurolemma
what covers an unmyelinated axon in the PNS?
a single layer of schwann cell cytoplasm
what forms connecive tissue sheaths (epineurium, perineurium, and endoneurium)?
fibroblasts
epineurium is made of what type of CT?
dense CT
characteristics of epineurium
contains elastic fibers, retracts when cut, can be sutured
whole fascicles are surrounded by perineurium that is made of what?
squamous cells that form a semi-permeable barrier
what is the function of tight junctions in the perineurium?
prevent fluid buildup around axons
what are the components of fascicles?
groups of nerve fibers: axon + myelin + schwann cell cytoplasm and unmyelinated axons
innermost connective tissue covering of nerves
endoneurium
what is endoneurium made of?
collagen and reticular fibers
what is an axonal injury distal to the cut that degenerates w/in 2 days in PNS and 2 weeks in CNS and the schwann cell tube remains?
wallerian degeneration
swelling of the cell body, eccentric nucleus, dissolution of Nissl bodies, production of large amount of protein for new axon is called...
chromatolysis
what bridges the gap at the injury site and directs neurites toward the schwann cell tube?
schwann cell proliferation
what causes phantom limb pain?
failure of neurites to transverse the gap at an injury site which produces a neuroma
sensory ganglia consist of:
primary sensory neurons
DRG
Trigem ganglion
and in cranial neres 7, 8, 9, 10
functions of autonomic ganglia
visceral motility, control of smooth and cardiac musculature, secretion of glands
what type of cells are sensory ganglia cell bodies?
round pseudounipolar cell bodies
pseudounipolar cell bodies are completely ensheathed by what?
satellite cells
function of satellite cells
nutrition, insulation, metabolic and structural support
autonomic ganglion cells have what type of cell bodies?
multipolar cell bodies
autonomic motor neurons are surrounded by...
satellite cells
main components of CNS
spinal cord, brain stem nuclei, cortical brain structures
major cell type of cerebral cortex
pyramidal cells
pyrimidal cell apical dendrites stretch to where?
pial surface
pyrimidal cell basilar dendrites branch in which direction?
horizontally
pyramidal cells occupy which cerebral cortex layers?
3rd and 5th
what types of cells are found ONLY in the caudal frontal cortex?
giant pyramidal cells (of betz)
what types of cells, other than pyramidal, are in cerebral cortex?
fusiform, stellate, and granule cells
cerebellum has how many layers of cortex?
3
major cell of cerebellum
purkinje
what type of cell is in the deepest layer of the cerebellum?
granule cell
pyramidal cells occupy which cerebral cortex layers?
3rd and 5th
what is the only obvious structure in astrocytes with Nissl staining?
euchromatic nucleus
what types of cells are found ONLY in the caudal frontal cortex?
giant pyramidal cells (of betz)
pyramidal cells occupy which cerebral cortex layers?
3rd and 5th
how do astrocytes look different than neurons?
have light cytoplasm and smaller size
what types of cells, other than pyramidal, are in cerebral cortex?
fusiform, stellate, and granule cells
astrocyte processes extend between what?
blood vessels and neurons
cerebellum has how many layers of cortex?
3
what part of astrocytes cover large neural and vascular areas?
perivascular end feet
what types of cells are found ONLY in the caudal frontal cortex?
giant pyramidal cells (of betz)
what types of cells, other than pyramidal, are in cerebral cortex?
fusiform, stellate, and granule cells
what protein is found in processes of astrocytes?
glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)
major cell of cerebellum
purkinje
cerebellum has how many layers of cortex?
3
what type of cell is in the deepest layer of the cerebellum?
granule cell
structure found only in gray matter, surround neural soma and appear as fuzzy ball in silver stain
protoplasmic astrocyte
major cell of cerebellum
purkinje
what is the only obvious structure in astrocytes with Nissl staining?
euchromatic nucleus
what type of cell is in the deepest layer of the cerebellum?
granule cell
structure found mainly in white matter along tracts; spider-like appearance with silver stain
fibrous astrocyte
how do astrocytes look different than neurons?
have light cytoplasm and smaller size
what is the only obvious structure in astrocytes with Nissl staining?
euchromatic nucleus
astrocyte processes extend between what?
blood vessels and neurons
visual characteristics of oligodendrocytes
dark cytoplasm, small dark staining nucleus, few processes
what part of astrocytes cover large neural and vascular areas?
perivascular end feet
how do astrocytes look different than neurons?
have light cytoplasm and smaller size
6 differences of oligodendrocytes from schwann cells
1. one olig wraps several axons
2. nodes of ranvier are larger and not covered by olig cytoplasm
3. few schmidt-lanerman clefts
4. no basal lamina
5. no cytoplasm in outer layer of myelin sheath
6. unmyelinated axons have no glial envelopment
what protein is found in processes of astrocytes?
glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)
structure found only in gray matter, surround neural soma and appear as fuzzy ball in silver stain
protoplasmic astrocyte
astrocyte processes extend between what?
blood vessels and neurons
structure found mainly in white matter along tracts; spider-like appearance with silver stain
fibrous astrocyte
what part of astrocytes cover large neural and vascular areas?
perivascular end feet
visual characteristics of oligodendrocytes
dark cytoplasm, small dark staining nucleus, few processes
what protein is found in processes of astrocytes?
glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)
structure found only in gray matter, surround neural soma and appear as fuzzy ball in silver stain
protoplasmic astrocyte
6 differences of oligodendrocytes from schwann cells
1. one olig wraps several axons
2. nodes of ranvier are larger and not covered by olig cytoplasm
3. few schmidt-lanerman clefts
4. no basal lamina
5. no cytoplasm in outer layer of myelin sheath
6. unmyelinated axons have no glial envelopment
structure found mainly in white matter along tracts; spider-like appearance with silver stain
fibrous astrocyte
visual characteristics of oligodendrocytes
dark cytoplasm, small dark staining nucleus, few processes
6 differences of oligodendrocytes from schwann cells
1. one olig wraps several axons
2. nodes of ranvier are larger and not covered by olig cytoplasm
3. few schmidt-lanerman clefts
4. no basal lamina
5. no cytoplasm in outer layer of myelin sheath
6. unmyelinated axons have no glial envelopment
olig secrete a protein that does what?
inhibits axon regeneration w/in CNS
what structures are derived from blood cells and are phagocytic which help clear debris after injuries like a stroke?
microglia
what do microglia look like?
small soma with nuclei, dark cytoplasm, exhibit many spikes
what are cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells that line the ventricles and central canal of the CNS?
ependyma
specialized ependymal cells and associated capillaries that produce cerebrospinal fluid
choroid plexus