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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
triple response to histamine?
1. local erythema
2. flare
3. wheals
histamine's effect on vascular smooth muscle and bronchial smooth muscle?
vasodilation and bronchoconstriction
why does allergic rhinitis cause increased mucus secretion?
increased vascular permeability due to histamine
why does allergic rhinitis cause nasal congestion?
vasodilation due to histamine
what is the late reaction in alleric rhinitis / asthma?
caused by leukocyte infiltration and production of leukotrienes.

mast cells also release LT's (minutes) but later on leukocytes will come in and release LTs
Where are histamine receptors and which G protein signalling do they use?
H2: in stomach - uses Gs
H1: everywhere else, uses Gq.
causes vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, pruritis, and wheals
H4 hematopoietic cells - impt for stimulation of TH2 types of allergic reactions (antibodies)
which symptoms of allergic rhinitis will antihistamines not relieve?
bronchospasm (LT mediated)
which symptoms of allergic rhinitis will antihistamines relieve?
pruritis, rhinorrhea, sneezing

some relief for congestion

doesnt do anything for bronchospasm
scombroid fish poisoning?
mackerel, tuna, albacore, sardines, swordfish

bacteria in spoiled fish decarboxylate histidine to histamine

histamine toxicity mimics anaphylaxis:

hypotension, flushing, reflex tachycardia, headache, rashes, bronchoconstriction, GI cramping and diarrhea

cooking does not get rid of this
where is serotonin found outside the CNS?
enterochromaffin cells

serotonin's effects outside the CNS
1. nausea / vomitting - 5HT3R in enteric nerves and medullary vomitting center
2. increased GI motility -5HT2R
3. complex triple response on CV system (hypotension, hypertension, hypotension)
Bezold Jarisch reflex?
injection of serotononin - 5HT receptors on left ventricle - bradycardia and hypotension
complex triple response of cardiovascular system to serotonin injection?
1. HYPOTENSION - chemoreceptor response (Bezold-Jarisch reflex) - 5HT receptors on LV - bradycardia and hypotension
this is a chemoreceptor reflex and is most rapid

2. HYPERTENSION - vascular smooth muscle 5HT2R receptors - this is a direct effect

3. HYPOTENSION - due to 5HT stimulated NO production in skeletal muscle vasculature.
NO production takes the longest because it is an indirect effect
symptoms and cause of serotonin toxicity?
intermittent hypotension, flushing, diarrhea

carcinoid syndrome - tumor of enterochromaffin cells

5 hydroxy indole acetic acid is the diagnostic test - it is a metabolite of 5ht in urine
chemotactic for neutrophils
chemotactic for eosinophils
3 actions of LTC4, (LTD4, LTE4)
increased vascular permeability (edema)
arterioloar constrions
What is Samter's Triad?
Samter's triad is a combination of
1. aspirin allergy
2. nasal polyps
3. asthma

not a true allergy - due to genetic abnormality in AA metabolism. aspirin shifts AA metabolism from PG to LT, and this causes the nasal polyps and asthma
what is aspirin allergy
some people when given aspirin, get their AA metabolism shifted from PG to LT and make too much of them.
what do cysteinyl LT receptors bind?
LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4
which cysteinyl LT receptor do these LT blockers block?
what disorder might cause an excess of serotonin
a carcinoid tumor (tumor of chromaffin cells)