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111 Cards in this Set

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Defense of the Realm Act (DORA)
1916; gave British the power punish dissidents during wartime; ex: suspended newspapers critical of the government
Esterhazy-Radziwill (families)
Noble families in Europe; very wealthy, own lots of land
Pope Leo XIII
1878-1903; advocated "Rerum Novarum"
Rerum Novarum
Advocated by Pope Leo XIII; asked the church to adopt a socialist approach to the very poor
King George V
1910-1936
Parliament: Commons and Lords
Two houses of Parliament:
Lower house = House of Commons: democratically elected (almost all men vote); took control of British government in 1914 --Prime Minister and Cabinet elected from this house
Upper house = House of Lords: not elected, appointed
Conservatives-Liberals
1914--Liberals take control of British government
Herbert Asquoth
Liberal, became prime minister of Britain in 1914; loses position during the war to David Lloyd George
Code Napoleon
Women are not considered full citizens in Europe due to a civil law code, which was based on the Code Napoleon, giving all familial authority to the father
David Lloyd George
1863-1945; British Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Delivered a speech during the Second Moroccan Crisis that essentially warned Germany that if they decided to go to war with the French, the British would enter as well, on the side of the French.
Labour Party
Countered the liberal control of British government in 1914; advocated Socialist ideas
Coalitions
Groups of parties in the French government; 15-20 parties existed, so there were no majorities--parties would group together to form coalitions
Irish Home Rule Bill
1914; British attempt to appease Irish nationalist population by giving Ireland home rule.
The Catholic Irish were growing increasingly discontent with the rule of Protestant British. The British feared "Home rule = Rome rule."
Caused great disparity in England, and was not passed due to the outbreak of WWI.
Third Republic
1871-1940; The government of France during WWI.
Consisted of a president (mainly symbolic) and Parliament (made of Senate and Chamber of Deputies).
Parliament had 15-20 parties, so no party had a majority - parties banded together to form coalitions.
Chamber of Deputies and the Senate
Divisions of the French Parliament:
Chamber of Deputies: the lower house, democratically elected by the public
Senate: the upper house, conservative, represented smaller French towns (not radical, liberal urban areas)
Raymond Poincare
1860-1934; President of France's Third Republic.
Foreign policies based on his birthplace of Lorraine (very anti-German).
Failed to maintain close enough contact with war generals.
Rene Viviani
1862-1925; Prime minister of France for first part of war, later replaced by Clemenceau.
Georges Clemenceau
1841-1929; leader of the Radical Party, engaged in "intellectual politics"
Became prime minister and minister of war in France during WWI.
"union sacree"
1914; President Poincare attempted to appeal to patriotism in a time of war.
He introduced the "union sacree" which united political parties in support of the cause of "la Petrie" (the nation). Before the "union sacree," conservatives wanted a monarchy, and socialists(left) wanted a republic/democracy.
Used "union sacree" to unite citizens in defense of France.
King Albert I
1875-1934; presided over the parliamentary democracy in Belgium, and became commander-in-chief in time of war.
Led Belgian resistance against the invading Germans, and was eventually pushed into Antwerp, where they resisted and held (with the aid of the French) the North edge of the Allied line.
Belgium's resistance slowed the German's progress and threw the first "wrench" into the German Schlieffen Plan.
Alsace - Lorraine
French territories taken by the Germans in the Franco-Prussian war in 1870-71.
Area was ethically mixed, and caused a large anti-German sentiment in France.
The Eastern Question
Focused in the Balkans; The Eastern Question recognized that Turkish power was declining and the Ottoman Empire would soon collapse.
The Great European powers were unable to decide who would get the Balkans and the rest of the empire when it collapsed.
AH was landlocked and interested in expanding south into the Balkans, with access to the Turkish straits.
Russia shared a culture with Romania, Serbia, and wanted to expand to the Turkish straits.
The British and French did not want the Russians to gain control of the straits. They feared for their colonies and control of the Suez Canal. Also feared that Russia would take the Persian oil market.
There was also nationalist movements within the Balkan areas.
Chancellor Theobold von Bethmann-Hollweg
1856-1921; Chancellor of Germany, worked well with Kaiser William II.
Held the belief that Germany was surrounded by enemies. Was eventually replaced by Ludendorff.
Emperor Franz Josef
1848-1916; Ruled kingdom of Austria-Hungary as the emperor of Austria and the king of Hungary.
Agreed to the Compromise of 1867, which created the division between Austria and Hungary, and gave each home rule. To remain in control, had a new clause added to the Constitution that allowed him to rule by decree.
In AH, each division had home rule, but were unified in foriegn policy, army, navy and postal service.
Count Leopold von Berchtold und zu Ungarschitz Frattig und Pullitz
Foriegn minister of AH; Wanted to prove the strength and unity of the empire, often refusing compromises with nationalists.
After the assassination of the Archduke, wrote a note to Serbia, making demands as a consequence. If Serbia failed to comply, which he knew they would (the demands were purposefully made too harsh), it would mean war.
Diet
The legislative body in Hungary, elected by people who own property (~6%) of the population.
The Diet was primarily responsible for the lack of military spending in AH prior to WWI. The Magyars desired a separate Hungarian army (they saw the common army as the key to the dynasty's rule over AH), but Franz Josef refused. Therefore, the Diet refused to vote for the funds necessary to enlarge and modernize the army.
Istuvan Count Tisza
1861-1918; Prime minister of Hungary; eventually wants independence from Austria (like many nobles).
He was the only one to recognize the danger of war and to speak out against it in AH. Tisza says that if Austria wins, it will look like war on Serbia. Also, a war with Serbia may end up bringing in Serbia's ally, Russia.
Tsar Nicholas II
Ruler of Russia, took over Commander in Chief position in 1915.
Great Program of 1914
The rebuilding of the Russian military forces, to be completed in 1917.
The Duma decided to do this (army was weakened by devastation of Russo-Japanese war), planning to reequip the army with modern weapons and expand the peacetime army to 2 million men.
This military rebuilding increased the German desire to engage in war quickly, before the Russians had time to regain their strength and put forth a strong Eastern Front.
Congress of Berlin
1878; Resettlement of the Russo-Turkish war (in which the Russians were the victors), mediated by Otto von Bismarck.
The treaty is redrawn, giving Serbia and Romania full independence, giving Bosnia-Herzegovina to AH (angering the Serbs), and giving Cyprus to England, allowing them to protect the Suez Canal.
Russia loses the Mediterranean base it had taken, making Russia feel as though it can't lose again (leads up to Russia refusing to back down from the major conflict in 1914).
Kaiser William II
Ruler of Germany during WWI; impulsive, approaching every problem with an "open mouth".
Introduced "Weltpolitik" -he wanted to make Germany a global power. Wanted to start by building a German navy second to none (working off Alfred Thayer Mahan's book), making the British wary of the Germans.
Gave AH a "blank check," pledging Germany's full support in whatever AH decided to do in response to the assassination of the Archduke.
Other stupid decisions:
1. Didn't renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1980.
2. Made Britain angry with over the Kruger telegraph (Transvaal, 1895) and Daily Telegraph Crisis (1908).
3. Made the French mad by supporting Moroccan independence in MC I (1904) and by demanding land from the French in MC II (1911).
Trans-Siberian Railroad
A Russian railroad that began in St. Petersburg and went to the Pacific coast.
The railroad was only one-way, and was the only one of its kind in the country.
This symbolized Russia's lack of industrialization, its Industrial Revolution not occurring until 1890, after that of the other Great Powers.
The lack of modern transportation within such a vast country created many problems. Soldiers on the front can't be supplied with enough food or weapons to fight a modern war. Russia's unstable infrastructure makes it very difficult to transport troops quickly and efficiently.
This especially creates a problem in Poland, were there is almost no railroads and where the first battles on the Eastern front were fought.
Russo-Japanese War
1904-05; War between the Russians and Japanese over Russian expansion into Asia.
The Russians lost, and the war nearly decimated their military, destroyed much of the army, and led to a revolution that dethroned the czar and put the Duma in power.
The war left the Russian military unprepared for war for many years, including when war broke out in 1914.
The weakness of the Russian army was also part of France's reasoning for backing down to Germany in the Moroccan Crises; France knew its ally, Russia, was not strong enough to back them in a war.
Belgrade
The capital of Serbia, bombed by the Austrians in 1914.
Nikola Pasic
Prime minister of Serbia; a nationalist who essentially presided over Serbia and was very pro-Russian.
In February of 1914, was promised Russian support in future endeavors (linked Russia to Serbia when they went to war with AH).
Was not involved in the plot to assassinate the Archduke, but was aware of the possibility, asking for an investigation into the Black Hand agenda.
Was afraid of warning AH in the event that it appeared to his people that he was giving aid to the hated enemy.
Enver Pasha
1881-1922; Ruled the Ottoman Empire, making Sultan Mohammad II more of a figurehead.
Commanded the "Caucasus" campaign in the mountains, during the winter. The Turks were battered by the Russians.
Was held responsible for Armenian rebellion, in which Armenians on the Turkish side of the Turkish-Russian border rebelled. In the middle of winter, Pasha ordered the deportation and essentially, the genocide, of almost 1 millon Armenians.
Berlin-Baghdad Railroad
1914; A German railroad line that connected Constantinople to the Persian Gulf.
The Young Turks wanted to economically strengthen Turkey, so they accepted Germany's plan to build the railroad across Turkey.
However, the principle use of the railroad was to extend German influence.
Otto von Bismarck
1815-98; chief minister in the Prussian gov't of William I and architect of German unity.
Bismarck essentially unified the German Empire (Prussia and 39 German states) after the Franco-Prussian War.
He recognized that Germany had nothing more to gain from war and created foriegn policies based on maintaining peace in Europe.
Bismarck had two main goals: to neutralize France and prevent war over the Eastern Question, and his foriegn policy revolved around these issues.
When William II came to power in 1890, Bismarck is fired, and his diplomacy begins to unravel.
First Three Emperor's League
1873-78; Bismarck's attempt to control the Eastern Question, strengthen German security, and further isolate France from its allies.
Bismarck exploits the conservative desire to control revolutions that was present in Germany, AH, and Russia (as opposed to French 'radicalism'). The three countries were also interested in keeping Poland dismembered.
The three did not sign a military agreement, but did agree to benevolent neutrality, should one be attacked by an outside power.
Bosnia-Herzegovina
Territory annexed by AH following the Congress of Berlin in 1878.
Serbs in these provinces wanted to join the greater Serbian state, sparking nationalist movements.
Sarajevo
The capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina, where Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in June of 1914.
Dual Alliance
1879; a defensive military agreement between Germany and AH.
Russia was still pissed about getting screwed over at the Congress of Berlin by AH, so they left the Three Emperor's League, leaving just Germany and AH.
AH feared war with Russia, so the pact included that if Russia attacked either nation, the other would come to its aid. If another country attacked, the partner would assume benevolent neutrality.
Second Three Emperor's League
1881; Russia rejoins, and the league is reformed from AH, Germany, and Russia.
The agreement dictates that all three countries must engage in benevolent neutrality; if one member was attacked, the other two would have to remain neutral.
This league was also another attempt by Bismarck to prevent France and Russia from allying together.
Triple Alliance
1882 Alliance between AH, Germany, and Italy
Bismarck had encouraged the French to expand their colonies into Africa, knowing the Italians were planning to take the same area. This angered the Italians and caused them to join in a military alliance with Germany and AH.
Bismarck encouraged the alliance to prevent Italy from allying with the French once their anger had cooled, especially in light of the fact that Austria possessed the "Italia Irridenta," lands which Italians regarded as 'unredeemed Italy.'
Berlin Conference
1884-85; Conference called by Bismarck to deal with problems in N. Africa.
The statesmen 'carve up' Africa, giving portions to the Great Powers: France, Britain, and Germany.
This was another diplomatic attempt by Bismarck to keep the peace in Europe.
Reinsurance Treaty
1887; Germany makes 3-year treaty with Russia after Russia leaves the Three Emperor's League, fearing AH seizing the Balkans.
In 1890, William II takes power, forces Bismarck to retire, and fails to renew the treaty. This sends Russia looking for new allies, leading to Russia and France uniting as allies.
Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz
Naval secretary of Germany, appointed in 1897 by William II.
Desired to keep Germany's navy in home waters (rather than all over the globe as William desired) and created the Navy League in 1898 to agitate support for developing a large navy.
Tirpitz dreamed of giving Germany a navy 2/3 the size of the British navy, believing it would ensure that the British would not risk an attack on Germany and that it may entice them to join Germany as allies. Called this navy a "risk fleet."
By 1902, Britain saw the German navy as a direct threat to its "two-power standard" which held the belief that the British navy should be stronger than the fleets of the next two largest European fleets combined.
When war breaks out, plans on defeating the British on the Atlantic by 1920.
Theophile Delcassé
1852-1923; Became France's foriegn minister in 1898, worked diplomatically to remove France from its isolation.
Around 1898, arranged an agreement of benevolent neutrality between France and Italy.
In 1904, orchestrated the "Entente Cordiale" with British leaders. The "entente" involved the French allowing Britain to have its colony in Egypt and take the "Cape to Cairo" stretch. In return, the British allowed French to take Morocco as a protectorate.
Insofar as the public knows, this was not a military alliance.
"Cape to Cairo"
1896; responsible for Franco-British war scare over colonial expansion in Africa.
The French officer Colonel Marchand was told to expand French colonies across Central Africa, starting in Senegal.
At the same time, the British were attempting to create a "Cape to Cairo" empire, from Cairo, Egypt, to Cape Town. The expedition was led by Herbert Kitchener.
Eventually the two would meet, causing conflict.
Boer War
1899-1903; Sudan - The British went to war with the Boer republics.
The Germans clearly supported the Boers, and when Britain had to resort to rather brutal tactics (concentration camps, etc) to be victorious, the tide of public approval in Europe turned against them.
Britain now saw the importance of forming better relations with other powers, but because Europe was rather disgusted with them, Britain looked elsewhere.
In 1902, Britain surprised the world by signing a defensive military alliance with Japan. The agreement reflected a mutual fear of Russia and the fear that France would support its ally if Russia became involved in a war in East Asia.
Transvaal
1895; Transvaal was settled by Dutch farmers (Boers) and was in the way of the British "Cape to Cairo" expansion.
The Boers rebelled, and the the British attempted to infiltrate the city during the Jameson Raid, which the Boers managed to hold out against.
William II congratulated the Boers on their resiliency in a telegraph, using words implying that Germany would have come to their aid if necessary.
Britain was NOT amused.
First Moroccan Crisis
1904-05; Conflict between the French and the Germans.
France wanted to bring Morocco in as a protectorate, but as they attempted to do so, Germany intervened, with William II arriving in Tangier and announcing that Germany is on the side of Moroccan independence.
The German intervention was meant to serve as a test of the Anglo-French relationship, to block the growth of French power, and simply because Germany wanted the African colonies for itself.
The French backed down (although the Germans never really intended to go to war) and called the Algeciras Conference, where it protected the economic rights of other powers, but allowed France to extend its control into Morocco.
Sir Edward Grey
Became foreign secretary of Britain in 1905, dominating British foriegn policy from 1905-1914.
Grey saw the entente with France as a safeguard for Britain's security as he was wary of German intentions.
In 1914, tries to use diplomacy to avoid going to war, but implies that if Austria goes to war with Serbia, Britain will engage.
Convinced the British Parliament to bring Britain into the war by saying the German occupation of Belgium was a threat to England as well as a violation of Belgium's neutrality.
Anglo-Russo Entente
1907; an agreement (NOT a military contract) that attempted to fix relations between Russia and Britain.
The entente gave Russia Northern Persia (and its oil), while the British took Southern Persia. The Russians agreed to stay out of Afghanistan, and both Britain and Russia promised to stay out of Tibet.
The agreement improved relations with both Russia and France and strengthened the "entente cordiale."
Adm. Sir John Arbuthnot Fischer
First sea lord in command of the British Royal Navy, appointed in 1904.
He viewed confrontation with Germany as inevitable, and therefore worked to strengthen the British navy.
As part of the plan, Fisher insisted on the construction of a revolutionary new battleship, the "Dreadnought."
General Tirpitz (German) felt the need to build similar warships, leading to a naval race which aggravated relations between Germany and Britain more than anything else.
Daily Telegraph Crisis
1908; William II interviewed for a British paper, and his answers enraged the British public.
William II suffers a sort of nervous breakdown, and Anglo-German relations are worsened further.
Second Moroccan Crisis
1911; conflict between France and Germany.
German foriegn secretary KiderlenWachter sent the gunship "Panther" to the port of Agadir on Morocco's Atlantic coast.
The Germans then demanded that the French give them a huge portion of the French Congo as compensation.
France was willing to negotiate (also under the encouragement of Sir Edward Grey). In 1911, a Franco-German agreement was reached that gave Germany a much smaller part of the French Congo, and Berlin conceded French domination of Morocco, where they established a protectorate a little over a year later.
David Lloyd George essentially promises that if war erupts, Britain will enter on the side of France, proving the strength of the agreements between Britain and France.
Narodna Odbrana (National Defense)
The Bosnian crisis in 1908-09 greatly angered Serbians, who now viewed AH as an enemy, and anti-Austrian secret societies came into existance, like Narodna Odbrana.
The organization's goal was to achieve a Greater Serbia, bringing in Serbian areas from Turkey and Austria.
"Union of Death" (Black Hand)
Founded in 1911; a secret organization that supported the desire to form a Greater Serbia, and attempted to fulfill this goal through terrorist activities in Bosnia.
The Black Hand orchestrated the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in June 1914.
Bosnian Crisis
1908-09; conflict between Russia and AH.
Russian foriegn minister Alexander Izvolski tried to find a diplomatic 'win' for Russia by trying to obtain permission for Russia's warships to leave the Black Sea and enter the Mediterranean. AH foriegn minister meets with Izvolski, but AH refuses and moves into Sarajevo, and Russia is forced to back down.
Serbians are unhappy that the Russians failed to support them, and Russia feels it failed its Serbian allies.
This leads to greater discontent in Serbia and is part of the reason Russia feels it needs to go to war when AH attacks Serbia in 1914.
First Balkan War
1912; Turkey vs. the Balkan League.
The Balkan League is made up of Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Montenegro. They went to war with Turkey to win back some Eastern territory.
The league drove Turkey out of most of its European territory, and Turkey had to ask for an armistice.
Second Balkan War
1913; the Balkan League could not decide how to split up the territories gained in the First Balkan War, and they went to war with each other.
Romania and Turkey joined the war to take part of Bulgaria, and Bulgaria was forced to seek peace.
The Treaty of Bucharest allowed Serbia, Greece, and Romania to take part of Bulgaria, and the major fortress city of Adrianople was given to the Turks.
The war's outcome was a setback for AH, who had tried to promote peace between Romania and Bulgaria, knowing that a Bulgarian defeat would strengthen Serbia.
In addition, Germany had ignored AH intentions and had supported its ally, Romania. Romania's loyalty to the Triple Alliance became questionable.
Battle of the Marne
1914; the decisive battle of the war, orchestrated by Marshall of France, Joffre.
The British and the French turn around from a retreat and triumph over the Germans.
The French 6th army reinforced by Paris infantry pushed the Kluck army back.
This battle was the reason the Germans would never have a short war. They were unable to walk right through and take Paris, and as winter arrived, the troops had to entrench themselves, and a stalemate ensued.
General Joseph Jacques Cesaire Joffre
1852-1931; chief of the general staff in the French army (Marshall of France).
Remains intellectually in the past - continues using the frontal assault, despite its ineffectiveness in modern warfare.
Orchestrates the Battle of the Marne in 1914, in which he turned retreating troops around to fight the German advance and succeeded in preventing them from taking Paris.
General Ferdinand Foch
1851-1929; French general that believed strongly in the power of the offensive.
Wrote a book that contained the philosophy that the military of a democracy will have a fighting spirit that is superior to that of non-democratic nations, and will therefore be unstoppable.
Leads the 9th French army (made from remnents of the 3rd and 4th armies) after Joffre orders a retreat (following Mons). Leads 9th army in Battle of the Marne.
Eventually becomes the Marshall of France.
General Henri – Philippe Petain
1856-1951; French general that realized the power of modern firepower, and as a result was rather cautious, and skeptical of the frontal attack.
Commander of the troops at Verdun (best on the defensive), successfully defended Verdun.
Became Marshall of France in the 1930s.
French Plan XVII
1914; the plan the French originally use to attack the Germans at the onset of WWI.
The French believed there would be a weak German attack through Belgium, not expecting the Germans to use reserve troops.
The French and BEF launch offensive into Lorraine, then plan to go on to Berlin.
The plan fails as it conflicts with the Schlieffen Plan.
Field Marshall Herbert Kitchener
1850-1916; Britain's most decorated soldier with unparalled power to coordinate British war effort.
Had great insight into how the war would turn out (length, etc) and tried to prepare the British army.
Was given the task of expanding the army without a military draft. Created "pals battalions" that allowed men to sign up together and serve together in war.
Was killed on a warship in 1916.
"Pals Battalions"
Instituted in 1914 by Kitchener as a way to expand the British army without the draft.
These battalions allowed men to sign up to serve together in the army as an enticement to join the military.
This resulted in huge casualties where the male population of whole towns were wiped out.
Britain instituted the draft in 1916.
Field Marshall Sir John French
1852-1925; commanded the BEF in France.
Virtually no experience or intelligence, never really understands modern war.
Is forced to resign in 1915, sent to command home troops.
Battle of the Somme
1916; Battle commanded by Sir Douglas Haig and Field Marshall Sir William Robertson, with huge British casualties
“Old Contemptibles”
1914; the nickname for British troops in the BEF (given by William II).
The British troops were very highly trained, able to fire so fast that BEF fire was mistaken for machine gun fire.
The BEF was almost completely decimated in 1914.
Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaievich
1856-1929; Commander in Chief of Russian army until Czar Nicholas took over as commander in chief in 1915.
General Aleksei Alekseievich Brusilov
1853-1926; best commander of the Russian army, very good at the offensive.
Defeats Austrian troops led by Hotzendorf in the Carpathian Mountains (makes AH ask Germany for aid).
Luigi Count Cadorna
1850-1928; Italian Army Chief of Staff until 1917.
Argues for the offensive, like French commander, Joffre. Very stern disciplinarian.
Arditi
1915; When Italians join WWI in 1915, they employ arditi, or stormtroopers.
The arditi led the world in their elite military training.
Italians also used Alpine units, who were trained to ski up and down the Alpine Mountains to engage in high altitude battles.
Mannlicher Carcano rifle (Mouser)
1914; rifle used by the Italian, Serbian, German, and Turkish armies.
Field Marshall Radomir Putnik
1847-1917; commanded Serbian army; led the Serbian army to victory in 1914, then Serbian army was defeated in 1915.
Brilliant strategist.
General Helmut von Moltke
1848-1916; Chief of German General Staff.
Believed war was inevitable, so it was better now than later, when Russia could complete its Great Program and could launch a strong offensive on the Eastern front.
Had his headquarters in Luxembourg (miles from the front). Also believed in the power of the offensive.
General Erich von Falkenhayn
1861-1922; replaced Moltke as Chief of Staff.
Launched a major offensive at Verdun, holding a strong belief that the war must be won in the west.
Conflicted with HL, who believed war must be won in the east.
Field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg und van Beneckendorf
1847-1934; called back to active duty on the Eastern Front in 1914.
Very conservative, led successful campaign on the Eastern front with Erich Ludendorff. Given "Oberkommando Ost (oberost)" by William II. HL has complete control over the Eastern front.
Became president of Germany in 1925.
Erich Ludendorff
1865-1933; worked with Hindenburg on the Eastern front. Becomes First Quartermaster General in the German army.
Helped craft the "Stab in the Back" theory with Hindenburg. Replaces Bethman-Holweg in army takeover of gov't.
"Stab in the Back" theory
1918; theory invented by HL to explain Germany's defeat in WWI.
HL blamed people at home for Germany's defeat (blames Jews, Socialists, etc).
“Directive Command”
1914; command utilized by German officers in the field.
Gave flexibility to field officers that wasn't given to French and British troops.
"Directive command" gave officers goals, and the officers on the ground chose how and when to accomplish these directives.
Gave Germans considerable advantage in coordinating their troops on the field (over British/French troops).
Count Alfred von Schlieffen
1833-1913; came up with plan for a German war (based on the assumption that Germany will have to fight a two-front war).
Assumptions of the Plan:
1. Russia will be slow to mobilize.
2. The war in the west (with France) should be fought first, then fight Russia.
Plan is based on the Roman "Cannae" attack, which is based on encircling the enemy. The plan was to surprise the French by sending the main offensive through neutral Belgium to attack the French were they are weakest, the unfortified border between France and its neutral neighbors.
59 divisions would be sent through Belgium, and 10 would be left to defend the border between France and Germany.
The plan failed.
Field Marshall Conrad von Hötzendorf
1852-1925; Austro-Hungarian Field Marshall, brilliant strategist.
Wanted to wage a preventative war against Serbia in response to the Archduke's assassination.
Leads Austrian army in 1914; fights two fronts, Serbia and Russia.
Leads attack against Russian troops in Carpathian Mountains. Defeated by Russians led by General Aleksei Brusilov.
Austrians have to ask the Germans for help (AH becomes junior partner in alliance).
Skoda howitzer
Heavy artillery weapon used by the Germans (originally).
Used by the Germans to decimate the Belgian forts, allowing the Germans to move through Belgium, continuing with the Schlieffen Plan.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
1863-1914; heir to the throne of AH, was assassinated in June 1914.
AH responded to assassination by ordering Serbia to comply to extremely harsh demands. Serbia refused, so AH went to war.
Result: WWI
General Oskar Potiorek
1914; Local military commander in Serbia.
Told Archduke it was safe to travel through Sarajevo the day of his death.
Ordered to take troops into Serbia and defeat its army with the 2nd, 5th and 6th Austrian armies.
Potiorek briefly takes the Serbian capital, but is beaten back over the border.
Colonel Dragutin Dimitrijevic
1876-1917; aka "Apis"; head of Narodna Odbrana's intelligence unit.
Strongly disliked by Prime Minister Pasic.
Was working as a part of the Black Hand, bears partial responsibility for assassination.
“War Guilt Clause”
1919; article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, drafted by John Foster Dulles.
The article assigns war guilt to Germany and its allies. It forces the Germans to pay large reparations, and Germany is forced to sign it.
Leads to German resentment that eventually sparks WWII.
Luigi Albertini
1930's; wrote 3 vol. book called The Origins of the War of 1914.
Book lays blame mainly on Germany and AH, after reading released documents and interviewing people involved.
The book also resolves Serbia of any guilt and exonerates Russia.
Fritz Fischer
1961; published books blaming Germany and AH for WWI.
Used research from newly released documents, German Chancellory papers (obtained while researching in Communist Germany).
Claims that WWI was a German bid for world power, shows that Germany was planning for war before it broke out in 1914.
Meuse Corridor
1914; the river area German army needs to cross to enter Belgium (located at Liege battle site).
The Belgians burn all the bridges, forcing the Germans to enter through the river.
General Gérard Leman
1914; commanded the Belgian troops at Liege (concrete forts) to defend the Meuse Corridor (the First Belgian resistance)
Has to retreat to Fort Loncin, defends it until forced to surrender in Aug. 1914.
Battle of Frontiers
1914; The French offensive against the Germans at the French-German border.
The French are unable to break through the German defensive lines. However, the attack is so fierce that Ruprecht and von Heerington request more men (to defend border).
Moltke transfers more men from the main attack, weakening the Belgian offensive further (in addition to diminishing force of the offensive).
First Battle of the Aisne
Sept. 1914; German vs French battle.
The Germans fail to take Paris, and as a result, occupy the east bank of the Aisne River, uphill.
The French attempt to take back the bank, but are unable to, with great casualties.
The Germans cannot take Paris; therefore, a stalemate on the Western front ensues.
“Race to the Sea”
1914; as winter approaches on the western front, Joffre and Falkenhayn realize each can outflank the other if they reach the sea first.
Both armies head north, attempting to beat the other. No one won.
Yser River
1914; the river between Diximude and Nieuport, where it emptied into the sea.
Falkenhayn brings German troops in first to Antwerp, forcing the Belgians to evacuate and entrench along Yser River.
Belgian army held the allied line there by opening the flood gates, flooding the land between the Germans and Belgians, protecting them for the remainder of the war.
Ypres salient
1914; the BEF was assigned to defend the Ypres salient, the gate to the North Sea.
Falkenhayn's troops attacked the BEF in November in the first battle of Ypres.
The British sustained huge casualties when the Germans attacked. The casualties are memorialized at the Menin Gate.
“No Man’s Land”
1914; the area between lines of enemy trenches.
In the winter of 1914, a lines of entrenched troops stretched from the North Sea to Switzerland on the western front. A stalemate kept men in trenches; the only way to take the enemy's trench was to cross No Man's Land in an offensive attack.
General Charles Lanrezac
1914; French commander assigned to work with the BEF commander Sir John French.
Leads one French army (5th army) against four German armies attacking from Belgium.
General Pavel Karlovich Rennenkampf
1914; Commanded the First Russian army.
Moved much faster than the Second Russian army; therefore, the German army didn't have to face the force of both Russian armies at the same time.
Defeated the German army (lead by von Pritturtz) at the Battle of Gumbinnen, but were later was defeated (Battle of Masurion Lakes), after the Germans defeated Samsonov's army.
General Alexander Vasilievich Samsonov
1914; commander of the second Russian army.
Much slower moving than Rennekampf's army.
Was encircled and defeated by the German army in the Battle of Tannenburg.
Battle of Tannenburg
Aug. 1914; Battle between German army and Samsonov's army.
The lack of coded communication allows the Germans to find out all the Russian movements and easily encircle Samsonov's troops.
German victory allows the to return to finish off Rennenkampf's army.
Field Marshall Radomir Putnik
1914; leads Serbian troops against Austrian forces on the SE front.
“Oberkommando Ost (oberost)”
1914; William II gives HL complete power over the Eastern Front, allowing them to decide how to attack Russia.
Franco-Prussian War
1870-71; French vs. Germans, the French were defeated.
The government of France collapses, and France becomes a republic.
The 39 German states and Prussia unify (with the help of Otto von Bismarck) to form the German Empire, ruled by William I.
Germany replaces France as the world's greatest land power.
Germany takes the French territories of Alsace-Lorraine.
The French are bitter and humiliated by the peace treaty. France's animosity towards Germany leads Bismarck to do his best to isolate France from all allies as he diplomatically secures Germany.
Captain Andre Laffargue
French captain; in 1915, introduced method of breaking lines of trench warfare by taking machine guns out with small groups of soliders.
The French and British didn't see the theory as a valid option. However, the Germans did, and they used it to take out tons of Allied troops before the French and the Brits figured it out.
Mons
French city; 1914 first battle between the BEF and German troops coming through Belgium.
The British won, although outnumbered (yay Brits!). However, Joffre eventually called for a retreat for Lanrezac and French's troops when he realized that most of the German forces were coming through Belgium.
Lead-up to the Battle of the Marne.
Langemarck
1914; Germans launch frontal attack against the British with huge casualties.
Lots of green troops are sent directly into machine gun fire (21,000 in mass grave).
Battle is known as "sacrifice of the innocent."