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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Federal government made institution that made loans to railroads and financial institutions.
Significance: Allowed railroad and financial industry to expand. At the time, there was not a need for more credit (loans) but need for more capital.
Underconsumption thesis
Companies made a profit, however, the profit was not distributed through higher wages to the employees. The company itself prospered, but not the employees.
Significance: Since workers didn't receive higher wages, the housing market softened and overheaded the stock market.
Herbert Hoover's way of allowing businesses to come together and venture a new way to bring the country out of a state of depression.
Civilian Conservation Corps

One of FDR's 'First' New Deal programs. Got young males off the street to work in a quasi-military environment where they received wages for their work cleaning paths, chopping firewood, and clearing dead trees.
Significance: Gave homeless kids a standard of living until the depression ended, some criticized it was "make work" (similar to interning), not integrated (segregated throughout) and was 100% relief, but did not offer alot of recovery or any reform.
Wagner Act
Established the National Labor

Relations Board, outlawed the firing and blacklisting for union membership.
National Industrial Recovery Act

Similar to Hoover's associationalism; some codes were voluntary, some enforceable. Enforced the amount paid to workers for products, number of hours to work.
Significance: Dominated by Big Business, not the federal government.
End Poverty in California

Upton Sinclair vowed to end poverty and unemployment in the state of California. Proposed the EPIC tax to get needed supplies (lumber, cement, steel, utilites, etc).
Containment doctrine
Containment of communism, not to crush it, and to avoid WWIII.
Truman Doctrine
"every nation must choose between alternative ways of life" - President Harry Truman
During a crisis in Greece, 1947 concerning the pending communist threat, the U.S. sent $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey to quickly rebuild and maintain defenses to thwart off Stalin's occupation of the two countries.
Marshall Plan
Financial aid to help allies rebuild quickly then defend against pending USSR threat. $2.5 billion over four years, majority of it went to Western Germany and half of Berlin.
David Reisman
Reisman typologies
"Tradition directed" - Believed in pre-industrial and religious values with no individualism.
"Inner directed" - nineteenth century individualism and private conscience.
"Other directed" - Attitudes and values attributed from peers, loss of independence.
First massively-built suburban homes. A part of New York City where all houses built looked the same, all had a kitchen and bay windows in the front. Dubbed "Levittown's" after the architect.
The Beats
The new left, critiques of 1950's America: apolitical, materialistic (cars), homogenized (acting and dressing alike), conformist, and overly socialized.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Epic decision by the Supreme Court which ruled "separate but equal" unconstitutional, ordered end of segregation and begin integration of both races in schools once segregated.
Thurgood Marshall
Attorney, once attempted to go to Law School at the University of Maryland, was part of the judges at the paramount decision for Brown vs. Board of Education.
Freedom Rides
Began in 1961, part of the Civil Rights movement, where many African Americans would ride in interstate buses from the North to the South to test the legality of it. Only worked in places where African Americans were included and integrated into society. Freedom Riders announced their intentions long before they enacted their actions on bus trips from D.C. to New Orleans. Many were arrested for trespassing and violation of Jim Crow laws.
Cuban missile crisis
Period of tensions between the U.S. and Cuba when intelligence was received that the Cuban government was receiving Soviet nuclear missiles. U.S. consulted with NATO and OAS, prevented Soviet ships into the harbors of Cuba with a naval blockade, television address with American public warning of a nuclear war. No quid pro quo (No Deal), U.S. missiles removed from Turkey and Italy, Soviet ships returned with missiles from Cuba; detente ensued.
Kennedy-Nixon debate
First every televised Presidential debate. TV changed the course of the American lifestyle.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Protected voting rights, banned segregation in public facilities, established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).
Port Huron Statement
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) at Berkeley Free Speech Momvent (1964) stated that the American system was corrupted, there were traditional issues and need for a participatory democracy.
Rejected normal life, normally used drugs, wore jeans, beads and had long hair. Psychedelic music with combination of drugs and visuals on projection screens. Majik Bus rejected the social norms.
Ho Chi Minh
Leader of Vietnam and declared its independence in 1945. Fighting began in 1946 against the occupying French forces.
Tet Offensive
Name from the Lunar New Year: January 31, 1968. Nineteen communist insurgents attacked the U.S. Embassy in Saigon. 84,000 other Communists attacked 100+ provincial and state capitals all over Southern Vietnam.
American retaliation: Americanization of the War, July 1965, stepped up plans and increased military involvement.
VietCong saw two weaknesses: Unstable Democratic Vietnamese government and shaky American resolve. Communist goals: National unity of Vietnam, not a larger Cold War.
General uprising, lasted for 77 days until late March 1968.
Geneva Accords
Division of Vietnam among the 17th Parallel. Outlined elections to vote for a new leader after two years, the U.S. did not sign the Geneva Accord, Ngo Dinh Diem was a strong supporter of the U.S.
Chemical molecule that was a pesticide to kill bugs with malaria. Was a dangerous pesticide which persisted the environment.
The Feminine Mystique
Book by Betty Friedan about the societal norm of women being homemakers and child bearers. Helped in the Women's Movement to argue for control over their bodies and choice over abortion.
Phyllis Schlafly
Advocate for the Women's Rights Movement arguing about hot button issues like the Army (if equal, women could become soldiers); restrooms (must be unisex, not single sex) and family. Campaigned in both Southern and Northern cities, overall genertional split, overall occupational split among issues.
John Dean
President's counsel, managed to cover up the Watergate Scandal, monitored the FBI investigation.
Laffer Curve
Supply-side economics. Center piece of American policy during Reaganomics. Graph of a parabola with the vertex point being "t" or the optimal rate the government sets to get the most amount of tax money. The two y-axis coordinates are the tax rates of 0% and 100% where the government makes no money.
Significance: No way to tell if the tax percentage is above or below the optimum rate.
Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization.

When the PATCO Union members all went on strike, President Reagan fired them all and hired new Air Traffic Controllers.
Iran Hostage Crisis
Dilemma with Iran's Ayatollah where hostages were held for quite some time. Once Reagan was inaugurated, hostages were freed onto a plane.
Strategic Defense Initiative also known as "Star Wars"

President Reagan's dream for an x-ray or chemical laser to defuse and/or destroy ICBMs launched toward the U.S.
Significance: Wonderful plan, but was super expensive, technically impossible, assured Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) to be tried from opposing countries of other ideologies. Reagan even got Edward Teller, father of the H-Bomb, to promote that it would work.
Proposition 13
California Proposition (1978) which reduced property taxes by 57%. Caused other states to slash property and income taxes