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37 Cards in this Set

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Who is WOODY GUTHRIE. Give some specifics of his activities (30s/40s)
Folksinger, songwriter, activist, role model
From Okalahoma
“This Land is My Land, This Land is your Land”
Name some younger artists to whom he was a role model. (woodie Gutherie)
THE WEAVERS
PETER,PAUL, & MARY
WEAVERS: Identify, describe effect on career due to the political climate of the 40s/50s
put on a Communism list by McCarthy, songs of protest and favored labor Unions, soon after they were targeted their sales diminished
Name 3 causes that were championed by singers in this genre of music in the 60s/70s+.
Social issues: reminiscent of the early 1800s and the desire for social improvement and a sense of person responsibility.
NEW: increasing challenge to the prevailing authority and raising people’s awareness to social inequities and injustices within the worlds of labor, government, politics, and economics, etc.
RODGERS & HAMMERSTEIN: Name 2 of their shows. Describe briefly the development of OKLAHOMA and its success as “Americana”.
“The King and I” “South Pacific”
It was the cowboy mentality with singing.
Oklahoma: focusing on empathy; dealing with characters and situations far removed from the audience by time and geography; dealing with American historical and social materials; and its use of dance to convey plot and character rather than mere diversion for the audience.
LEONARD BERNSTEIN
Give information about his career, and his multiple roles in American music.
*Include mention of the special distinction of his career with the NY Philharmonic,
titles of his works; WEST SIDE STORY; give date, name the two famous artists that worked with him on this musical and their individual skill.
-Music Advisor to Berkshire Music Center, a member of its faculty and head of its Orchestra and Conducting Department
-Professor of Music at Brandeis
-1955 launched lectures on Omnibus TV series
-1974 MIT institute lecturer
Became the first native-born Musician named to conduct a major American Orchestra – New York Philharmonic
West Side Story September 26, 1957worked with Author Laurants and Stephen Sondheim
SONDHEIM: Why have his shows not been as commercially successful as they are critically acclaimed? Name 2 later shows of his and describe their content/topics.
They were critically claimed because he tried something new but it wasn’t necessarily liked by audiences like Sweeney Todd. Sweeney Todd was about a guy who murdered people and cooked them in pies. Sunday in the Park with George was about the painting made by Seurat and the people came out of the painting and examined parts in their life/
Name and describe briefly 3 factors of life in the 1950s that contributed to the rise and success of R & R.
Postwar prosperity
Development of housing , suburbs
Conformity (corporate & neighborhood)
Identify ALAN FREED and describe his role in the emergence of R & R, crisis and end of his career.
While Alan Freed called himself the "father of rock and roll."
credited for coining and popularizing the term "Rock and Roll" to describe a style of music.
He was a promoter and he was very successful at what he did, until his own personal failings became exploited by others.
Pioneered Racial integration.
Identify LES PAUL and LEO FENDER. What are some of their inventions/contributions in the realm of instruments/accessories?
an American jazz guitarist and inventor. He is a pioneer in the development of the solid-body electric guitar (the Gibson Les Paul, which he helped design, is one of the most famous and enduring models), multitrack recording, and various reverb and echo effects.

Fender an American luthier who founded Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company. His guitar, bass, and amplifier designs from the 1950s continue to dominate popular music more than half a century later.
Give the date of AMERICAN BANDSTAND’s national broadcast. Mention what was featured that fueled the lifestyles of teenagers in the 50s+
NATIONAL TV 1957, showed teenagers how to dress and dance
Identify RITCHIE VALENS and his special distinction in Am. popular music
(Richard Valenzuela) (1941-59) “La Bamba” 1959
**first Mexican American to gain mainstream success
What is PAYOLA? How did this change the music industry?
Record companies paid disc jockeys to give their songs heavy airplay.
1950s/60s legal concerns about this ended the career of many record execs an
Identify BERRY GORDY and describe the significance of MOTOWN and its activities.
American record producer founded Motown records in Detroit
How were BERRY GORDY'S artists primed for mainstream success?
He carefully controlled his African American artists’ public image, managing dress, manners and choreography for crossover appeal
Mention an important songwriting team that worked for MOTOWN
Holland-Dozier-Holland
Charm School, Choreography etc
Name 3 groups that brought fame to the label in the 60s
The Supremes, Marvin Gaye, The Temptations
Give the title of a song by JAMES BROWN from the 60s that reflected the emerging attitude of some of the African-American population.
SAY IT LOUD (1968)
Describe the satire/ parody/ critical content of the shows by George Clinton and Co.
How is his music linked to younger artists in the rap genre?
George Clinton (Dr.Funkenstein) social criticism, wild humor, psych. Stage show/imagery/storytelling-concept
5 LPs Top 40 176-78 (2 platinum)
Wm.”Bootsy” Collins bass, sax men: Maceo Parker, Fred Wesley from JB’s band
Snoop Dogg sampled, influenced
Give 3 characteristics of BE-BOP.
Identify the following, mention their instrument and their contribution to jazz.
Employed extended chordal harmony/ harmonic complexity, broken rhythms, new kind of scat language,
CHARLIE PARKER
Alto saxophone virtuoso
DIZZY GILLESPIE
Trumpeter, composer
THELONIUS MONK
Pianist, composer
MAX ROACH
Drummer
ORNETTE COLEMAN
American saxophonist and composer
Give information about the career of MILES DAVIS and areas of jazz in which he was an innovator. *Include important titles, albums, dates, artists he worked with.
Considered the most consistently innovative musician in jazz, late 1940s/1960s
Worked with Charlie Parker 1945-48; others

Gil Evans 1948+ Arranger; Miles Davis Nonet or Birth of the Cool band
(trad. Instrumental lineup + new: French horn and tuba)

Recordings: Birth of the Cool (originally done 1948-50)
*With Quintet 1955-57
Round about Midnight 1955-56
Miles Ahead ’57
** 1957 trumpet /flugelhorn, orchestrations by Gil Evans, Bill Evans (1958-59) pianist
Porgy & Bess 1958
Milestones 1958
Kind of Blue 1959
Sketches of Spain 1959-60

Bitches Brew (acoustic + electronic, jazz improv + rock accomp.)
In a Silent Way
What is THIRD STREAM? Identify GUNTHER SCHULLER.
Genre named by French horn virtuoso,composer
President of New England Conservatory of Music (70s+)
“Concertino for Jazz Quartet and Orchestra” written for MJQ
*Third Stream and Jazz Dept. at N.E.C.; later also Thelonius.Monk Institute
Who is JOHN COLTRANE? What special elements did he bring to his playing and compositions? Give the title of one of his best known albums that demonstrates this.
Saxaphone player, reshaped modern jazz
His playing was compressed, as if whole solos passed in a few seconds, with rapid runs cascading in hundreds of notes per minute.
“Coltrane”
Write a paragraph (approx.6 informative sentences) regarding the positive/ negative reception of the more experimental forms of Jazz (include mention of style elements of Free Jazz, Avant –garde: Art Ensemble of Chicago, pianist Cecil Taylor, Sun Ra).
The Art Ensemble - members use of costumes and face paint in performance. Ensemble's multi-instrumentalism, especially the use what they termed "little instruments" in addition to the traditional jazz lineup;
"little instruments" can include bicycle horns, bells, birthday party noisemakers, wind chimes, and a vast array of percussion instruments (including found objects).

Taylor is known for being an extremely energetic, physical yet subtle player, producing exceedingly complex improvised sounds, frequently involving tone clusters and intricate polyrhythms. At first listen, his dense and percussive music can be difficult to absorb, often described as if playing "88 tuned drums."

Free jazz uses jazz idioms but generally considerably less compositional material than in most earlier styles — improvisation is essential, and whereas in earlier styles of jazz the improvised solos were always built according to a template provided by composed material (chord changes and melody), in free jazz the performers often range much more widely.

"Ra was one of the first jazz leaders to use two basses, to employ the electric bass, to play electronic keyboards, to use extensive percussion and polyrhythms, to explore modal music and to pioneer solo and group freeform improvisations. In addition, he made his mark in the wider cultural context: he proclaimed the African origins of jazz, reaffirmed pride in black history and reasserted the spiritual and mystical dimensions of music (all important factors in the black cultural/political renaissance of the 60s)."
What is FUSION?
is a musical genre that merges elements of jazz with other styles of music, particularly pop, rock, folk, reggae, funk, metal, R&B, hip hop, electronic music and world music
Identify WEATHER REPORT. Give the title of one of their best-known songs
albums 1971 -1986
Joe Zawinul (Vienna) kybds, synth
Wayne Shorter (USA) saxes
Miroslav Vitous (Czech) bass
Alphonse Mouzon (USA) drums
Airto Moreira (Brazil) percussion
1977 “Heavy Weather” most commercially successful, group’s first gold album
Tune “Birdland” with Jaco Pastorius on bass
Identify JOHN CAGE
Composer, writer, performer
Exploratory style, experimental (any sound is potentially music)
Define the terms ALEATORY and PREPARED PIANO
ALEATORY: chance music/performance (from Latin “alea” for dice). The composer gives the performer elements of the composition but the exact nature of the performance moment can be determined by the choices of the performers.

PREPARED PIANO: variety of non-musical materials (metal, glass, weather stripping, cloth, specified by composer) are placed in/on the strings to obtain special non-traditional sounds from the instrument.
FRANK ZAPPA: describe his style & works. Who were some of his influences?
Performer/guitarist, composer, film maker *see other side
Claimed major influences from composers like Ives, Cowell, etc. Used all creative genres to make satirical commentary regarding politics, music industry, society.
What is MINIMALISM?
style of composition that focuses on the use of musical patterns with little or no variation in rhythm, dynamics, instruments, tempo, mood. Effect can be almost trance like (influence from Eastern Indian music). Term also used to describe architecture, fashion, décor, food.
Bring in real life inspirations of the 21st century
PHILIP GLASS: Give name of a work and his collaborator.
**Name 2 of his unusual operas and their subject matter.
Collaborator Robert Wilson known for staging and concepts
“Einstein on the Beach” it’s fours hours long and no break,
“Satyagraha” Ghandi, impact on Martin Luther King, came to appreciation from working in Paris to transcribe Ravi Shankar
“1,000 Airplanes on the Roof” about Aliens, mirror mental distress
JOHN ADAMS: name 2 of his “controversial” operas and their real inspirations.
“Nixon and China” 1987 – portrays in a sympathetic life remembered as a great pres, Pat Nixon was a reluctant first lady, then dealt with China
“The Death of Klinghoffer” 1990-91 *hijacking of ship, death of American