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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Chronological Order of Major Chinese Dynasties
Qin, Han (Former and Later), Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming, Qing
What was the significance of the imperial examination system in China?
The imperial examination was based on the a man's knowledge of the classical Confucian literature. Men applied for govt. positions by taking the imperial exam. Scholars believed that all of China's problems were moral or ethical in nature. If Confucianism was followed by all of the government officials, then everything would fall into place.
What were the positive points of the examination system?
(1)Put the best men forward
(2)Encouraged literacy
(3)Men willing to work hard
(4)Everyone had the same political
ideals and would not disagree
What were the negative points of the imperial examination system?
(1)Men only focused on one subject
(2)The government did not the skills
necessary to modernize.
(3)Discouraged education and literacy
among the poverty stricken.
(4)Very few from the lower class could
take advantage of this opportunity.
Name the differences between the Chinese and Japanese language.
Chinese: (1)Different Dialects
(2)Subject/Verb/Object
(3)Verb stays the same
(4)Monosyllabic

Japanese (1)Homogenous Language
(2)Subject/Object/Verb
(3)Verb changes with intension
,inflection, and conjugation
(4)Polysyllabic
Name the differences between Confucianism and Legalism.
Confucianism: (1)Filial Piety
(2)Education
(3)Antiquity
(4)Initial Good Nature
(5)Ritual and Music Imp.
(6)Emphasize Relationship
(7)Ruler influences sub.

Legalism: (1)Emphasize Strong State
(2)Initial Bad Nature
(3)Goal of Wealth and
Power
(4)Laws Important
(5)Obedient subjects will
make a virtuous ruler
(6)Rewards and Punishment
What was the well-field system?
Under this system, eight families each farmed an outside field and joined together to cultivate the inside field for their lord.
How is Japanese Jomon culture best known?
(1)Rope pattern pottery
(2)Clay figurines of human and animal
likenesses
What were the eras in China and Japan that have inspired literature and art extolling the warrior ethic?
China = 3 Kingdoms Period (Wu, Wei, and
Shu)

Japan = Kamakura Period
How did Buddhism change to be more appealing to the Chinese?
(1)Buddhists texts were translated into
Chinese
(2)Employed Daoist terminology for
translated Buddhist words
(3)Fused with Confucianism (filiality)
What are the five relationships in Confucianism?
(1)Ruler & Minister
(2)Friend & Friend
(3)Husband & Wife
(4)Father & Son
(5)Younger Brother & Elder Brother
Describe the life of an 8th-century Buddhist monk in China.
(1)Celibacy
(2)Deprive of worldly treasures
(3)Eliminating Desire
(4)Meditation Important
What is the mandate of heaven and to whom does it pertain?
Very attractive principle; Heaven gives permission to one righteous ruler; good rulers are educated, moral, and ethical/this was the only way heaven will look foavorably upon you. Pertained to the emperor
What did Neo-Confucianism add?
Li = principle; interaction of all
things; one thing that influences
everything else; no form

Qi = vital energies, material force,
psychophysical stuff; makes things
unique; form
What were some of the ideas and institutions that Japan borrowed from Tang China?
(1)New Religious Ideas (Buddhism)
(2)The Chinese Calendar
(3)Concepts of Government
(4)New court ranks
(5)Equal field system
(6)Tang-style tax system was introduced
What is the dynastic cycle?
The rise and fall of successive families of rulers that have the "Mandate of Heaven".
How is Daoism different from Confucianism?
Daoism: (1)Focus on natural harmony
(2)Content with ignorance and
in tune with nature
(3)Not humanistic
(4)No emphasis on education
(5)Not moralistic
(6)Lower class of people more
in touch with nature

Confucianism: (1)Focus on social
harmony
(2)Education is important
(3)Moralistic
(4)Scholarly Class Imp.
(5)Humanistic
What was the social hierarchy in China and Japan with respect to occupation?
China: Scholars/Farmers/Artisans/Merchants

Japan:
Warriors/Famers/Artisans/Merchants
Why was Heian literature almost exlusively a women's concern?
Court ladies had ample leisure for reading and writing. They had inactive days. Learned how to write in katakana.
What beefits did those who passed the imperial examinations enjoy?
(1)Government Position
(2)No Labor Tax
(3)Wealth
Why foot-binding?
In a convergence of ethics and aesthetics, timy feet were thought to enhance a girl's attractiveness and, at the same time, to deter her from straying into mischief. (Song Dynasty)