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113 Cards in this Set

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pre-Greek civ. on Crete ca. 2200-1500 B.C.
○ Commercial culture
○ Palace at Knossos
○ Ended suddenly: perhaps natural disaster, Mycenaeans
Minoans
Indo-European nomadic group, invaded Minoan Crete
○ Not just destroyers: set up gov't (kinglets), garrisoned towns, trade
○ Probably conquered Troy
Mycenaeans
nomadic group, ancestors of Spartans
Dorians
nomadic group which settled on Asian coast of Aegean
Ionians
What led to Greek colonization?
Population growth
Decline of the Greek aristocracy was caused by:
○ Growth of trade
○ Change in military tactics: phalanx of citizen infantry replaced chariots
○ Tyrants: short-lived extra-legal rulers, established assemblies to strengthen supporters
Greek citizen infantryman (composed the phalanx)
Hoplite
Ionian city-state led the revolt ag Persians 499 B.C., famous trading city
Miletus
battle where Spartans crushed Persain army (479 B.C.) during second invasion
Plataea
ca. 600 B.C. archon of Athens, most famous lawgiver
○ Freed farmers from debt
○ Opened up public office to common people
Solon
ca. 550 B.C. tyrant of Athens
○ Destroyed aristocracy: gave land to common followers
○ Encouraged manufacture/trade
○ Started temple-building program
Psistratus
508 B.C. instituted Council of Five Hundred, brought basic democracy to Athens (though an aristocrat)
Cleisthenes
Athenian assembly chosen by lot (brought in by Cleisthenes)
Council of Five Hundred
450-429 B.C. aristocrat who put finishing touches on Athenian democracy, introduced idea of empire
Pericles
Greek alliance transformed by Pericles to Athenian empire
Delian League
Why were the Spartans so militaristic?
they needed to keep the Helots down
compulsory alliance dominated by Sparta
Peloponnesian League
Greek poetess
Sappho
Greek poet
Pindar
Greek historian, wrote Persian War, traveled to perform true historical investigation
Herodotus
Greek historian (exiled Athenian), wrote Peloponnesian War
Thucydides
What was the common heritage of the Greeks/Romans?
Indo-European
elected Roman officials who represented lower classes (often supported Senate)
Tribunes of the People
tribunes of the people during the Roman Civil War (133, 123)
○ Stirred up masses
○ Provided land to the masses
○ Killed by senate intrigue
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
Augustus' favorite title, meant "first citizen"
princeps
elite Roman troops who guarded Rome/emperor; often interfered in choosing next emperor
Praetorian Guard
Roman emperor 284-305: introduced the tetrarchy (4 rulers)
○ Reforms (bureaucracy, taxes, prices)
○ Last major persecution of Xians
Diocletian
Phoenician trading base on Atlantic coast of Spain (Carthage was originally weigh station)
Gades
legend says princess of Tyre, fled feud and built Carthage
Elissa/Dido
people group that leased/sold land to Carthage
Libyans/peoples of the Maghreb
Carthaginian explorer ca. 5th cty B.C.; sailed around West Africa/into the interior
Hanno
Carthaginian gov't system was:
oligarchy
Augustus Caesar's wife, carved out a place for herself as empress
Livia
wife/powerful ally of Septimus Severus, known as "the Philosopher"
Julia Domna
made Xy the state church of Rome
Theodosius
(313) made Xy legal (Constantine)
Edict of Milan
Ancient invaders of India followed one of these two paths:
1) They were assimilated
2) Or: they were eventually dislodged
original Indians (non-Aryans) left in the South, in the Deccan, powerful for 1st few ctys A.D.
Dravidians
important people group of southern India, just becoming organized first ctys A.D.; traders/shopkeepers
Tamils
320-540, ruled northern India/Ganges: similar to Mauryan dynasty
Gupta Dynasty
320-330: first ruler of Gupta dynasty of India
○ Married well (Princess Kumara Devi): became king of Magadha
○ Expanded, took title "maharajadhiraja" "great king of kings"
Chandra Gupta I
330-375: second ruler of Gupta dynasty of India, conquerer
Samudra Gupta
change in Hinduism during Gupta era in India: priesthood, Scriptures, basic beliefs
Hindu Renaissance
375-415, 3rd ruler of Gupta dynasty in India
○ Continued conquering N India, marriage alliance w/S
○ Golden Age of prosperity/art
Chandra Gupta II
invaders that destroyed power of Gupta dynasty in India
White Huns
popular myths turned into religious tales during the Hindu Renaissance
Puranas
Hindu Trinity
endless cycle:
○ Brahma the creator
○ Vishnu the preserver
○ Shiva the destroyer
"Little Vehicle" older form of Buddhism
○ Buddha just greatest teacher ever
○ Salvation for individual escaping the wheel
Hinayana
"Big Vehicle" new Buddhism
○ Buddha: incarnation of god
○ Salvation for all humanity through work of the faithful
Mahayana
Buddhist center of worship/shrine--Indian art
stupa
the Indian Shakespeare
Kalidasa
4th historical dynasty of China
○ Continued centralizing (rejected feudalism), but not as abruptly as Qin
○ Brought period of peace
○ Built on: Mandate of Heaven, Confucian scholar bureaucracy (Civil Service Exams start)
○ Confucian philo; history (dynastic circle)
Han dynasty
contender for power in China btwn Qin/Han dynasties; feudal aristocrat, lost
Xiang Yu
commoner founder of Han dynasty in China (d. 195 B.C.); centralizer (but not too abrupt)
Liu Bang
name posthumously given to Liu Bang as "exalted founder" of Han dynasty (China)
Han Gaozu
one of Liu Bang's wives who ruled after him, 2nd ruler of the Han dynasty
○ Knew many of emperor's supporters, relatives, intelligence/ambition
○ Brutal to advisers, but won people's support by humane policies
Empress Lü
greatest Han emperor (187-141 B.C.)
○ Strengthened religion (imperial sacrifices/prayers) to strengthen Mandate of Heaven
○ Bureaucratic/economic reforms/expansion
○ Foreign wars: esp. ag nomadic Xiongnu; expanding into Korea/Vietnam and toward the west
Han Wudi
most famous Han empire-builder (China)
Ban Chao
ruled as usurper for a brief period in the middle of the Han dynesty (China)
○ Took power after peasant revolts weakend Han
○ Platform: economic reforms, land redistribution
○ Rebellion/nomadic incursion led to end: killed by rebels
Wang Mang
revolutionary group against Chinese usurper Wang Mang to restore Han (Taoist)
Red Eyebrows
rebel group against Han dynasty (Taoist)
Yellow Turbans
Political difficulty of the Han Dynasty:
power-hungry families of the empresses
China's most admired woman writer; during Han dynasty, Confucian
Pan Chao
famous Han historian (China), during Wudi's reign: _Records of the Grand Historian_
Sima Qian
brother of emperor Ban Chao, famous historian, _History of the Former Han_ (dynastic cycle idea)
Ban Gu
area South of Egypt (to Khartoum), traded/interacted w/Egypt
Nubia
state that ruled Nubia, very influenced by Egypt; conquered by Egypt, preserved Egyptian culture, later conquered Egypt
Kush
center of culture, intellect and medicine in Egypt
○ 600s B.C.: Semitic Arabs mixed with Kushites
○ Good land: by Red Sea
○ Became Xian, isolated, Ethiopians of today
Axum
revolutionized trade in North Africa by A.D. 200
Camel Revolution
1500-400 B.C., coastal lowland S Mexico
○ Stone heads/jaguars
○ Social: had different classes, religion of primary importance
Olmecs
ancient civilization in Peru, left temple site in the Andes
Chavín culture
people groups in Arizona-area ca. A.D. 1000; pit houses, perhaps first irrigation system in America
Mogollon, Hohokam
people group in woodlands of Eastern U.S. before A.D. 500: settled villages, Serpent Mound
Adena
people group in Ohio/Mississippi valleys ca. 1st cty A.D., limited farming
Hopewell
society in N Peru ca. 300-700; pottery, pyramids
Mochica culture
city/civilization in Mexican highlands ca. 200-700; pyramids
Teotihuacán
most advanced American culture, ca. 300-900
○ Olmec ancestors
○ Advanced organization: warring states, social classes, high standard of living
○ Famous: for advanced mathematics/astronomy, writing system
Maya
cliff-dwellers in America southwest, corn/beans/squash
Pueblo culture
elaborate cliff-dwellers in American southwest, A.D. 900-1300
Anasazi culture
impressive Native American society in American southeast; traders/mounds
Mississippi culture
played by Toltecs, Aztecs, Cherokee; brutal/mixed w/war training, relgious ritual
ball game
precursors of the Aztecs; conquered Mayans from N, but didn't destroy civ
○ Warriors
○ Cities, metalworking, trade (cocoa/feathers/cotton)
Toltecs
legendary ruler of Toltecs
Topiltzin
most powerful empire in S America before Incas, in Andes
Chimu state
cities in the Andes before the Incas
Tiahuanaco/Huari
coastal civ in N Peru; highly developed
○ Autocratic gov't; warrior elite; elaborate gov't system; buildings
○ Elaborate irrigation system
○ Brick walled cities
Chimu
secured the throne of the Incans (1438-1471), started building empire
Pachacuti Inca
archaeologist who thought he found Agamemnon's mask
Schlieman
Contemporary of Homer; wrote:
- _Works in Days_: insight into early Greek society
- Theogony: originis of the gods/the universe
Hesiod
Writing systems of the Minoans/Mycenaeans
Linear A/B
Magna Graecia was in:
Italy
Two poleis that help Ionian city-states in revolt ag Persia:
Eretrea
Athens
What idea dominates 5th cty Greece, and becomes part of the cause of the Peloponnesian War?
idea that the Persians are coming back
alliace begun by Athens after the Persian Wars to protect ag Persian return; ended up turning into an empire of sorts (states not allowed to withdraw, tribute used to beautify Athens)
Delian League
Island where treasury of Athen's League was
Delos
Macedonians' all night drinking parties that could get rowdy and disgusted the Greeks
symposia
Alexander went here w/his army, very bad move
Gedrosian Dessert
the common Greek (used in NT)
Koiné
long-term strife btwn Plebians and Patricians in Rome
Conflict of the Orders
law that gives plebians legal recourse ag patricians
Law of the Twelve Tables
plantations of the Roman Aristocrats, that they bought up while the soldiers were away at war and couldn't take care of their land
Latifundia
the public land btwn plots in Roman world, that could be used by the common people: provoked controversy when the aristocrats began taking it over and farming it (Gracchus reforms supposed to deal w/it)
ager publicus
Roman politicians who propose measures amenable to the people at large (usually to win votes)
Populares
Roman politicians who resist catering to the people
Optimates
Populare politician
- proposes: take unemployed from cities and put them in the army
- Strongly in opposition to basic Roman values
- elected 7 times
Marius
Optimate politician
® Marches on the Senate (to defend old-fashioned honor of Rome, old-fashioned Senate)
® Puts forth proscriptions: lists of enemies who can be killed w/impunity
Sulla
battle where Octavian creamed Antony/Cleo
Actium
first empire-wide persecution of Xians was under:
Decius
2 ways states develop:
1) Primary: developed wt/outside influence
2) Secondary: comes about in two basic ways:
1) Models itself after another state
2) Forced to form as a response to a threat by another state
little Buddhas: people after Buddha have the same incarnation
Bodhisattvas
early rendition of the Huns troubled China during the Han dynasty
Xiongnu
capital of Kush; turns into something of an empire
Meroë
Legendary Incan ruler
Manco Capac