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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Jean le Rond d'Alembert
(1717 - 1783) Prominent philosophe and scientific co-editor of the "Encyclopedia." However, d'Alembert was not a revolutionary, he believed in the notion of rank and privilege.
All Saint's Day / All Soul's Day
(pre-1789) Two pagan holidays that were still largely celebrated in pre-Revolutionary France. The spirits of the dead were said to return on these days. These holidays demonstrate that Catholicism was only a veneer on the French, they were still far from the mainstream, very superstitous, and somewhat ignorant.
"L'Ami de Peuple"
(1789) An important and radical newspaper on the dawn of the Revolution, which was the work of Jean Paul Marat. The newspaper was suspicious of the government and those who controlled it. Marat and his newspaper were also a part of "Grub street."
Assembly of Notables
(1787) Called by Charles de Calonne, who was the Controller General of Finances at this time. He called the Assembly in order to rubber stamp his ideas for finance reform in France (uniform tax code, no privilege, economic stimulation, etc). However, the men he chose to come were all officials of the king, who were not too happy with the prospect of having to pay taxes. Therefore, along with Calonne's treatment of the nobles, his apparent loss of Necker's "surplus" and last minute presentation, his measures fail and Calonne is forced to flee the country. His successor, Loménie de Brienne, also has a difficult time dealing with the Assmebly, which said that they needed to call the Estates General if decisions such as this are to be made.
Alphonse Aulard
(1849 - 1928) A Frenchman, who was the first president of Revolutionary Studies at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). His belief was that you had to love the Revolution in order to completely understand it.
(pre-1789) A pre-Revolution fee that peasant had to pay to their lords, for being allowed to use the lord's mill or other expensive equipment in order to prepare their food. In essence, it was a "meal fee."
Chevalier de la Barre
(1746 - 1766) A symbol of French religious intolerance pre-Revolution. La Barre, who may have been a little unstable, was a blasphemer and his sacrilidge was the reason for his subsequent execution.
Abbé Augustin Barruel
(1741 - 1820) A French historian, proponent of the "plot theory" of the Revolution, which states that the Revolution was the cause of a plot by radical Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire and Rousseau. Barruel gave this theory its form and identity.
(1789) French prison that became very important during the Revolution. Most important, it became a symbol for the oppression and power of the "Old Regime" in France, and thus was attacked on the eve of the Revolution. Notable prisoners included Voltaire.
Battle of Yorktown
(1781) The last major action of the Revolutionary War. Important because the French fought and defeated the British fleet at the nearby naval battle of Virginia Capes. It showed the strength of the French fleet versus the usually superior British, and thus the state of the French navy before the French Revolution.
Cesare Bonesana, Marchesse di Beccaria
(1738 – 1794) Had an impression on the way legal processes were viewed in the Western world with his influential book "On Crime and Punishment." He believed that punishment exists to deter crime, and needs to be enduring (prison), not in the moment (execution). Argues for trial by jury, innocent until proven guilty, and is against torture.