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9 Cards in this Set

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very radical Ideology of american revolution that believed in the virtue of the common people who would sacrifice self-interest for the common good. It gave sovereignty to the people and trusted the people to organize the social/political world. Monarchy believed that the people were inherently evil. Although most Americans after the war felt that their country should be a republic, and that its citizens should be virtuous to maintain the republic’s stability, there were three different interpretations of the concept of republicanism…
a. Elite: merit-based, natural aristocracy
b. Elite and craftsmen: follow private interests for republican virtue
c. Less educated (Paine): more participation in gov’t (egalitarian approach)
All three approaches wanted a difference between monarchy of Britain and that republic reached by vituousness of the common people.
was the greatest innovation of the political government, separation of power whether it was nat’l-state-local, or w/in the gov’t leg-exec-jud. Important because it attempted to breakup, or demark power. Even though the articles of confederation did the same thing, the impetus behind federalism was for a national front outside of the boarders. The anti-federalist pointed out the fear of a powerful central government, and that the states would not be separate because you can’t break up sovereignty. The federalists (including James Madison) said that sovereignty comes from the people, and government is just a tool that the people can use.
Albany Congress
meeting of delegate from seven colonies to prepare for the 7years war. Sought to: persuade Iroquois to abandom traditional neutrality and to coordinate the defenses of the colonies. SUCCEEDED IN NEITHER. Iroquois saw no reason to change their policy that had worked for so long. “Plan of Union” (which would have an elected legislature with certain powers) was not adopted because of government’s fear of loss of autonomy.

There are two main points that have great significance branching from the Albany Congress. First, because the colonies couldn’t agree to coordinate their defenses nor could they persuade the Indians to ally themselves with the British, they were completely unprepared for the Seven Years War (the French and Indian War). Second, although the overall Plan of Union was rejected, a part of it was used later to construct the Articles of Confederation which led the colonies from 1781 until the Constitution was written.
after the 7 years war and the exclusion of france from north America, Britain started to take advantage of the indian’s loss of an alliance with the French. Britain raised pride of trade goods and imposed on Indian land. Pontiac was the Indian leader who united tribes due to concern about spread of colonists and spread of their culture. 1st time since King Phillip that influential leader called for unity of tribes to face anglo threat. Although treaty was signed three years later, showed the difficulty to govern the land that Britain had taken from france.
Virtual and Actual Representation
the idea of actual rep came about when colonists felt they were being taxed without say in government. showed signs of American intellectual resistance. Americans wanted to be rep and taxed by people known and chose by themselves and served in their respective legislatures. Said that virtual rep, ppl rep by mutual interests of parliament, gave parliament it’s sovereignty. Actual rep stressed close connection between electors and their representatives, and pointed toward the fullest and equal participation of the people in process of government that the modern world had ever seen.
Sons of Liberty
let mostly by members of middle ranks such as shopkeepers, a way to develop intercolonial network of correspondence who forced stamp agents to resign and enforced nonimportation of british goods and managed antistamp activities. One way that the Americans unified as a result of a political even of the stamp act.
Daughters of Liberty
after the townshend acts, which placed a tax on trade goods, it urged a non-importation movement. Marked a politicization of women and the moral language of liberty which said that if you bough british goods you are threatening the country’s liberty. Led by the daughters of liberty who encouraged wearing of homespun cloth. They proved that women’s involvement in politics could be beneficial for the country. Joined men in the symbolic display of patriotism.
Boston Massacre
first violent conflict in the colonies in which
British soldiers were involved.
an event that exemplified the fears of the conservative patriots about involving the masses in resistance movement, but ended up using the massacre as a propaganda tool. a confrontation between civilians and soldiers in boston the day the repeal of the townshend duties was proposed based on decision to base American board of customs commissioners in boston because it constantly reminded people of british power and the soldiers took jobs from laborers. Produced political benefits for the patriots.
was one of the
events that made the colonists realize that they were under the authority of
the Brittish Parliament and it led up to the Revolutionary War.
Coercive Acts
laws designed to punish Massachusetts for the boston tea party.
ordered the port of Boston closed until the tea was paid for, prohibiting all but coastal trade in food and firewood.
paliament also passed three other punitive measures. patriots perceived them as their worst fear of Britain conspiring to destroy colonial rights. Marked a cusp of confrontation but they had not committed themselves to an irrevocable break from Britain. Was the last straw which convinced Americans that parliament had no right to tax or make laws for them. Colonies agreed to send delegates to phil. For continental congress.