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57 Cards in this Set

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Advaita-Vedanta
subsystem of Vedanta-Sutra developed by Sankara; says that Brahman is the ultimate reality, and the material universe is just Maya
Agni
earthly deity, considered to be most powerful earthly force; symbol of fire
Arjuna
One of the five brothers in the Bhagavad-Gita, hesitates before battle and talks to Krsna who says he must fulfill his duty; realizes Krsna is incarnate of Vishnu
Aryan
nomadic barbarians that originated in Russia, conquered the Dravidians
asana
“postures”; third stage of Classical Yoga
Atharva-veda
fourth of the four vedas; dealt with religious matters for the 4th social class (laborers); distinguished between sophisticated religion (formal) and folk religion (narratives, spells, omens)
atman
soul; also Brahman
Bhagavad-Gita
most famous and widespread section of the Mahabharata, which is one of the significant Hindu epics
bhakti
“devotion”
Bhakti-yoga
Yoga of Devotion; highest form of yoga, much like practices found in churches where people give themselves up wholly to receive moksa
Brahma
creator god of the Trimurti; source and seed of all things
Brahman
atman; the absolute power of the whole universe and is identical with the spirit of human beings
brahmin
priests; the second class in the class system
Caitanya
man who developed Bhakti yoga
Darsanas
philosophical systems; “seeing / to see”
dharma
“duty” in terms of social class
Dravidians
civilization rich in culture, but were conquered by the Aryans; some fled to the south and became Tamils, those left became the laboring class in the new class system
Dvaita-Vedanta
developed by Madhva; theory that Brahman+Universe=God; (Dual)
Gandhi
one of the founding fathers of the modern Indian state; He often stated his values were simple, drawn from traditional Hindu beliefs: truth (satya),
and non-violence (ahimsa)
guru
"learned one"; an expert at something
Harappa
one of the ancient cities that the Dravidians originated from
Indra
vedic god of rain and thunder; chief atmosphere deity
Isvara
“lord”
Jñana-Yoga
discipline of knowledge; training of the mind
kalpa
one cycle of samsara
karma
“actions”; determines what someone will be reborn as
Karma-yoga
act in conscience with your dharma; found in the Bhagava-gita
Krsna
Arjuna’s charioteer
ksatriya
“warriors”; first of the four social classes
Madhva
developed Dvaita-Vedanta; lived around 1200 AD
Mahabharata
a significant Hindu epic; contains Bhagavad-Gita
Mohenjo-Daro
one of the ancient cities that the Dravidians originated from
moksa
salvation; the ultimate experience; escape from samsara
Patanjali
wrote the steps of classical yoga
Ramakrishna
extremely influential and liked teachers of Hinduism; was admired by Ghandi; many paths to one God
Ramanuja
developed Visista-Advaita-Vedanta; thought Maya was the overwhelming power of god; suggests Bhakti-yoga; lived from 1020-1140 AD
Ramayana
a significant Hindu epic
Rg-veda
first of four vedas; contains 1028 hymns
rsi
“sages”; preached about what they read from the scriptures
Sama-veda
second of four vedas; re-arranged the Rg-Veda for chanting
samadhi
“absorption” in ultimate reality; what happens to get moksa
Sankara
developed Advaita-Vedanta; lived 788-820 AD; suggests Jñana yoga
Sankhya
one of the 6 darsanas
samsara
the cycle of creation and destruction of the universe
Siva
destroyer god of the Trimurti
Soma
narcotic juice made from mushrooms
sudra
the laboring class, the fourth of the four social classes
Upanisad
same as Vedanta(s)
vaisya
merchants, the third of the four social classes
Varuna
chief heavenly deity
Vayu
wind god; wind controls all other earth elements
Vedas
scriptures of Hinduism; “to know intuitively”
Vedanta
the end of the vedas; explains or concludes the wisdom from the Vedas; written around 800 to 400 BC
Visistad-Avaita-Vedanta
developed by Ramanuja around
1020-1140AD; (Qualified Non-Dualistic); says that Maya is the
overwhelming power of God
Visnu
sustainer god of the Trimurti; god from whose belly button grew a flower containing Brahma and Siva; when the world is in trouble, and incarnation of him comes down to help
Yajur-Veda
third of four vedas; about sacrifice
yoga
“discipline”; a practice to get Moksa