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78 Cards in this Set

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Maya
Cosmic illusion brought about by divine power (non-dualism term)
Lila
The play of the Divine in its Cosmic Dance; God's play
Shankhya
A system of Hindu philosophy and one approach within jnana marga, "the path of knowlege," asserting that rality comprises 2 distinct categories: matter adn eternal self
Vedanta
a system of Hindu philosophy and one approach within jnana marga, "the path of knowledge" holding that all reality is essentially Brahman; most notable advocate is the medieval Hindu philosopher Shankara
Jiva
The soul
Mandir
A Hindu Temple
Brahmin
A person of the teacher's or philosopher's caste
Brahman
The universal absolute God within all things
Brahma
The creator god
Vishnu
Preserver god
Shiva
The destroyer god
Ganesha
One of the Hindu forms of God; he is Shiva's son
Samsura
The cycle of reincarnation
Kama
Physical pleasure
Sannyasin
The fourth stage of life, this describes when an individual has attained liberation and returned to the world, but is not attached to the things of the world
Artha
Worldly success
Samadhi
The state in which the human mind is completely absorbed in God
Yoga
The yogas are methods of disciplined training designed to unite the human spirit with the God who lied concealed in its deepest recesses
Ahimsa
The Hindu conceept of complete nonviolence
Mahatma
A title for Ghandi, it means "Great Soul"
Atman
The Hindu concept oof the individual self or soul, it reincarnates
Dharma
Responsible duty
Karma (2 understandings: simple meaning; doctrine)
Using the path to God through Work? The Hindu principle of cause and effect. It teaches that each action reacts upon the doer, and our present state is entirely a consequence of past actions
Mahabharata
Epic Poem
Puja
A Hindu form of worship, often practiced twice daily (morning and evening). Puja involves burning incense and offering fruit and flowers to a Hindu deity represented by a statue or picture. Puja may be performed either in a temple, or before the shrine many Hindus have in their homes. It is to respect the deity, perhaps request aid, and honor the attributes of God represented in teh image.
Satyagrapha
Ghandi's philosophy of resistance without violence
Rama
The seventh physical incarnation of the Hindu god-form Vishnu gods and translated them into the Vedas"
Neti...neti
not this... not that
Asanas
Yogic positions to master the body
Rishis
The inspired sages who tradition says "heard the hymns of the gods and translated them into the Vedas"
Shudras
Caste of followers, servants, and unskilled workers
Jnana marga
Consideration of various metaphors is part of the approach to this yoga
Uses prolonged, intense thinking and reflections to come to sense of self at a deeper level
Suggests visualizing oneself from a distance and thinking of oneself in the third person
Saguna Brahman
God with attributes
Bhagavad Gita
"Song of God"- part of an epic poem (Mahabharata) by mahabharat, it is the most popular sacred scriptures for Hindus. Gandhi said it gave "knowledge of Truth"
Moksha
Liberation, the final goal of Hinduism
Kshatriyas
The Cast of warriors and administrators
Karma marga
the path to God through work
psychological not economic
Point of life- to render the self transparent to the divine within
to transcend the smallness of the finite self
Reflective (transpersonal) or affective (personal)
Vaishyas
Caste of producers adn skilled craftsmen
Hatha marga
Seeks precision and control over the body and its functions
A disciplined training that has largely lost its original connection to spiritual yoga and which actually may impede spiritual growth
Vedanta
A system of Hindu philosophy adn one approach within jnana marga, "the path of knowlege". holding that all reality is essentially Brahman; most notable advocate is the medieval Hindu Shankara (non-dualism)
Nirguna Brahman
God without attributes
Bhakti Marga
A discipline that directs the love that lies at the base of every heart toward God
Seeks a God that is other or distinct from oneself
The Hindu path to God that is the most popular of the yogas
Sati
The unfortunate practice of burning a widow with her dead husband, it was once common but has been forbidden since 1829
Aryans
the lighter skinned race that conquered India
Raja Marga
Raja yoga seeks to master one's body, breathing and senses
Krishna
The eighth physical incarnation of the Hindu god-form Vishnu
Upanishads
Part of the Vedas
Ishta
A person's adopted representation of the divine, this is one of God's incarnations in a physical incarnation
Sanskrit
The language of Hinduism originating in 1500 B.C.E., it is the language of the sacred scriptures. The words being defined in this list are Sanskrit
Shiva
Destroyer god
Lotus Flower
A revered flower in India that the lotus position is based on
Lotus position
A sitting position where legs are crossed to allow the heel of each foor to placed atop the oppostie thigh, it is intended to help the useer gain control over the body, though apparently not the senses
Kama
Pleasure
Avatar
A reincarnation of God
Moksha
liberation
Caste System
- Brahmins
o Caste of priests and seers
 Modern-day philosophers, artists, religious leaders, and teachers
o Things of the mind and spirit are their materials
o They are supreme in honor and psychological (mental) power
- Kshatriyas
o Caste of administrators
 Modern-day warriors, military personnel, politicians, and managers
o Supreme in salary and social power
- Vaishyas
o Caste of producers
 Modern-day farmers, merchants, artisans, ect.
o They are skilled in creating the material things upon which life depends
- Shudras
o Caste of unskilled laborers
o Short attention spans
o Some sources indicate that the Shudras became stigmatized and excluded as the Untouchables or outcastes
- Untouchables
o Outcastes
o May have been a corruption of the Shudra caste
o Gandhi called them “Harjan”, or “God’s People”
o A corruption of the caste system
o Illegal today
Positive points of the caste system:
a. Each caste was self-governing
b. When in trouble, a person was tried by their peers
c. Within each caste, there were equalities, opportunities, and social insurance
d. Within each caste, individual rights were safer than they were in the world as a whole
Perversions/deteriorations of the caste system:
I. Outcastes/untouchables
II. Men could no longer change caste, as the system became hereditary (women became the caste of their spouses)
III. Privileges were given to the higher castes at the expense of the lower
IV. Interdining forbidden, and intermarriage was more and more restricted (maybe forbidden – notes unclear on this concept)
Possible Origins of the Caste System:
- uncertain location
- Origin has something to do with the differences between the original residents of India, and the Aryans
o Aryans invaded and brought their seers, their military leaders, and their producers
- Approximately 2000 BCE
o Aryans possessed differeny physiognomy (Tall, fair-skinned, pale eyed, light hair)
 They had different immune systems than the original residents – did some ritualized aspects of the caste system develop to accommodate this?
 Hereditary nature of professions might have started from trade secrets
Projection
Taking the blame from yourself and placing it on others
Ennui
A feeling of weariness or dissatisfaction
hedonism
Pleasure is the only thing that matters
Cow
Sacred animal of the Hindus
Monism
Everything contains Brahman
Ramanuja
A Hindu Philosopher
Shankara
hindu philosopher
Pantheism
the belief that God is in all things
Ganges River/Water
River in India whose water is sacred
Path of Desire
Pleasure and Worldly success
Doctrine of the human self
Body, conscious mind, individual subconscious, being itself
Stages of life
Student, householder, retirement, sannyasin
Basic spiritual personality types
Emotional, reflective, active, and experimentally inclined
Path of Renunciation
a. Those who have followed the path of desire are now disillusioned and despairing
i. Not worthwhile to extend oneself to achieve any longer
b. One suspects that there is more to life than the current experience (It may take more than one incarnation to find this “more to life”, though)
c. These people seek service and the responsible discharge of duty – Dharma
d. People may ask “Is this all?” even of dharma, leading to the third path
Path to God through Work
Karma yoga
- The path to God through work
- Active spiritual personality type, with either an bhakti or jnana base
- The disciple is called a karma yogi
- Based on the thought that we need to work for mental well-being, not just physical and economic
- This can use either bhakti yoga’s image of God, or jnana yoga’s image of God
- Each self-centered action separates the person from God, while each selfless act brings the person closer to him. Every action reacts on the doer.
- Laziness is a form of selfishness
- Features:
o One must perform each thing single-mindedly, and then move to the next and perform it in the same manner (throwing self into work, but wisely)
o To the karma yogi, success and failure should be entirely irrelevant
o Unselfishness essential, as is a calm acceptance of pain, loss, and shame
- Two approaches:
o Identifying oneself with the transpersonal absolute that resides at the core of one’s being (oneness with God)
 Approaching work intellectually
 Based in jnana yoga
OR
o Shifting one’s interest and affection to a personal God, who is experienced as distinct from oneself (otherness of God)
 Approaching work in a spirit of love and devoted service
 Based in bhakti yoga
Path to God through Psychophysical Exercises
raja yoga
Saguna Brahman
God with attributes
Nirguna Brahman
God without attributes
Path to God through Love/Devotion
Bhakti yoga
Stations of life
Brahmins, kshatriyas, Vaishyas, Shudras
8 steps in raja yoga
see study guide
Path to God through Knowlege
Jnana yoga