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21 Cards in this Set

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UNIMODAL Association Cortex
It is modality specific

e.g. somatosensory association cortex
Unimodal SENSORY Association Cortex
RECEIVES most input from the primary sensory cortex of a specific modality and performs higher-order sensory processing
Unimodal MOTOR Association Cortex
PROJECTS mostly to primary motor cortex.

Important in formulating motor programs for complex actions involving multiple joints
HETEROMODAL Association Cortex
1) BIDIRECTIONAL connections w/ both motor and sensory association cortex of all modlities.
2) Bidirectional connections with LIMBIC cortex
3) Performs HIGHEST-ORDER mental functions
4) Requires ABSTRACT sensory/motor info. from unimodal assoc. cortex, together w/ emotional & motivational influences of limbic cortex
Disconnection Syndrome
When a lesion in the white matter disconnects network connections b/t areas.

e.g. b/t visual cortex & language processing - leads to loss of ability to read
What % of the population is right handed?
~ 90%
What is the relationship b/t the LEFT hemisphere and motor functioning?
Skilled complex motor tasks for BOTH right and left limbs are programmed mainly by the dominant (usually left) hemisphere
What do lesions of the LEFT hemisphere typically do to motor functioning?
Apraxia
What % of RIGHT handers have language in the left hemisphere?
> 95%
What % of LEFT handers have language in the left hemisphere?
60% to 70%
Lefties and language
1)Many have significant bilateral representations of language
2) Thus, they tend to recover language more quickly after a left hemisphere lesion
What are the main functions of the RIGHT hemisphere?
1) Complex v/s skills
2) Imparting emotional sig. to events and language
3) Music perception
4) Involved in attending to both sides of the environment
What do lesions of the RIGHT hemisphere produce?
Marked LEFT hemineglect - even in people who are right hemisphere dominant for language
What are the neuroanatomical structures involved in receptive language?
1) Auditory infor. stimulates the primary auditory cortex (on the superior bank of the Sylvian fissure in the TL)
2) Auditory association cortex - enables particular sequences of sounds to be id'd and comprehended as meaningful words (aka - Wernicke's area)
Where is Wernicke's area?
In the posterior 2/3 of the superior temporal gyrus (Brodmann's area 22)

Many include Brodmann's areas 37, 39, & 40 (the rim of the lateral parietal & temporal heteromodal assoc. cortex)
What areas are responsible for EXPRESSIVE language?
1) Articulation of sounds depends upon the face area of the primary motor cortex (inferior portion of the precentral gyrus)
2) Motor programs activating sequences of sounds to produce words is formulated in the adjacent MOTOR ASSOC. CORTEX (BROCA'S area)
Where is BROCA'S area?
It lies in the opercular and triangular portions of the inferior frontal gyrus (many include the rim of Brodmann's area 44, such as 9, 46, and 47)
What is the ARCUATE FASCICULUS?
The subcortical white matter pathway that is the best known connection between Wernicke's and Broca's area
What are the communication pathways between Wernicke's and Broca's areas?
1) Arcuate fasciculus

2) Peri-Sylvian cortex - numerous polysynaptic connections convey info. from Wernicke's area along the intervening peri-Sylvian cortex to reach Broca's area.
What are other neuranatomical areas involved in expressive language (Broca's)?
1) Prefrontal cortex
2) Premotor cortex
3) Supplementary cortex

- Together with Broca's - higher-order motor aspects of speech formulation and planning
- Also important for SYNTAX or GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE, for both language production and comprehension
What are other neuroanatomical areas involved in receptive language (Wernicke's)?
1. Supramarginal gyrus (PL)
2. Angular gyrus (PL)
3. Brodmann's area 37 (TL)

- Together with Wernicke's for language comprehension
- Important for LEXICON - mapping of sounds to meaning for both comprehension and production of meaningful language