Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/94

Click to flip

94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
classic EKG finding in atrial flutter
sawtooth p waves
definition of unstable angina
new, worsening, or occurs at rest
antihypertensive for a diabetic patient with proteinuria
ACEI
Beck's triad for cardiac tamponade
hypotension, distant heart sounds, JVD
drugs that slow AV node transmission
B blockers, digoxin, calcium channel blockers
hypercholesterolemia treatment that causes flushing and pruritis
niacin
treatment for atrial fibrillation
anticoagulation, rate control, cardioversion
treatment for ventricular fibrillation
immediate cardioversion
autoimmune complication occuring 2-4 weeks post-MI
Dresslesr's syndrome: fever, pericarditis, increased ESR
IV drug use with JVD and holosystolic murmur at left sternal border. Treatment?
treat existing heart failure and replace the tricuspid valve
diagnostic test for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
echocardiogram (showing thickened left ventricuar wall and outflow obstruction)
a fall in systolic BP of >10 cm with inspiration
pulsus paradoxus (seen in cardiac tamponade)
classic EKG findings in pericarditis
low-voltage, diffuse ST-segment elevation
definition of HTN
BP >140/90 on three separate occasions two weeks apart
eight surgically correctable causes of HTN
renal artery stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, pheochromocytoma, Conn's syndrome, Cushing's syndrome, unilateral renal parenchymal disease, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism
elevation of a pulsatile mass and bruit
abdominal ultrasound and CT
indications for surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm
>5.5 cm, rapidly enlarging, symptomatic, or ruptured
treatment for acute coronary syndrome
morphine, O2, SL nitroglcerin, ASA, IV B blocers, heparin
what is the metabolic syndrome?
obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL, HTN, insulin resistance, prothrombotic or proinflammatory states
appropriate diagnostic test for:
50-year old male with angina who can exercise to 85% of maximum predicted HR
excercise stress test
appropriate diagnostic test for:
65-year-old woman with LBB and severe osteoporosis who has unstable angina
pharmacologic stress test
target LDL in a patient with diabetes
<70
signs of ischemia during stress testing
angina, ST-segment changes, or decreased BP
EKG findings suggestive of MI
ST-elevation, flattened T waves, Q waves
young patient who has angina at rest with ST elevation; cardiac enzymes normal
Prinzmetal's angina
common symptoms associated with silent MIs
CHF, shock, altered mental status
diagnostic test for PE
V/Q scan
agent that reverses the effects of heparin
protamine
coagulation parameter affected by warfarin
PT
6 P's of ischemia due to peripheral vascular disease
pain, pallor, pulselessness, paralysis, paresthesi, poikilothermia
Virchow's triad
stasis, hypercoagulability, endothelial damage
most common cause of HTN in young women
OCPs
most common cause of HTN in young men
excessive EtOH
criteria for exudative effusion
pleural/serum protein >0.5; pleural/serum LDH >0.6
causes of exudative effusion
think of leaky capillaries: malignancy, TB, bacterial or viral infection, PE with infarct, pancreatitis
causes of transudative effusion
think of intact capillaries: CHF, liver or kidney disease, and protein-losing enteropathy
normalizing PCO2 in a patient having an asthma exacerbation may indicate
fatigue and impending respiratory failure
dyspnea, lateral hilar lymphadenopathy on CXR, noncaseating granulomas, increased ACE, and hypercalcemia
sarcoidosis
PFT showing decreased FEV1/FVC
obstructive pulmonary disease (e.g. asthma)
PFT showing increased FEV1/FVC
restrictive pulmonary disease
honeycomb pattern on CXR. Diagnosis? Treatment?
diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis; supportive care; steroids may help
treatment for SVC syndrome
radiation
treatment for mild persistent asthma
inhaled B agonists and inhaled corticosteriods
acid-base disorder in PE
hypoxia and hypocarbia
non-small cell lung cancer associated with hypercalcemia
squamous cell lung cancer
tall white male presents with acute SOB. Diagnosis? Treatment?
spontaneous pneumothorax. Spontaneous regression. Supplemental O2 may be helpful
treatment of tension pneumothorax
immediate needle thoracostomy
characteristics favoring carcinoma in an isolated pulmonary nodule
age > 45-50 years; lesions new or larger in comparison to old films; absence of calcification or irregular calcification; size >2 cm; irregular margin
hypoxemia and pulmonary edema with normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
ARDS
increased risk of what infection with silicosis?
TB
classic CXR findings for pulmonary edema
cardiomegaly, prominent pulmonary vessels, Kerley B lines, "bat's wing" appearance of hilar shadows, and perivascular and peribronchial cuffing
renal tubular acidosis associated with abnormal H+ secretion and nephrolithiasis
Type I (distal) RTA
RTA associated with abnormal HCO3- and rickets
Type II (proximal) RTA
RTA associated wtih aldosterone defect
Type IV (distal) RTA
"doughy skin"
hypernatremia
Chvostek's and Trousseau's signs
hypocalcemia
most common causes of hypercalcemia
malignancy and hyperparathyroid
T wave flattening and U waves
hypokalemia
peaked T waves and widened QRS
hyperkalemia
first-line treatment for moderate hypercalcemia
IV hydration and loop diuretics
type of ARF in a patient with FeNa <1%
prerenal
49 year old male with acute onset flank pain and hematuria
nephrolithiasis
most common type of nephrolithiasis
calcium oxalate
20 year old man presents with palpable flank mass and hematura. US shows bilateral enlarged kidneys with cysts. Associated brain abnormality?
cerebral berry aneurysms (AD PKD)
hematuria, hypertension, and oliguria
nephritic syndrome
proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, edema
nephrotic syndrome
most common form of nephrotic syndrome
membranous nephropathy
most common form of glomerulonephritis
IgA nephropathy (Berger's disease)
glomerulonephritis with deafness
Alport's syndrome
glomerulonephritis with hemoptysis
Wegener's and Goodpasture's
presence of red cell casts in urine sediment
glomerulonephritis/nephritic syndrome
eosinophils in urine sediment
allergic interstitial nephritis
waxy casts in urine sediment and Maltese crosses (seen with lipiduria)
nephrotic syndrome
drowsiness, asterixis, nausea, and a pericardial friction rub
uremic syndrome seen in patients with renal failure
55 year old man is diagnosed with prostate CA - options?
wait, surgical resection, radiation, and/or androgen suppression
treatment of SIADH?
fluid restriction, demeclocycline
hematuria, flank pain, and palpable flank mass
renal cell carcinoma
testicular cancer associated with B-HCG, AFP
choriocarcinoma
most common type of testicular cancer
seminoma, a type of germ cell tumor
most common histology of bladder cancer
transitional cell carcinoma
complication of overly rapid correction of hyponatremia
central pontine myelinolysis
salicylate ingestion leads to what type of acid-base disorder?
anion gap acidosis and primary respiratory alkalosis due to central respiratory stimulation
acid-base disturbance commonly seen in pregnant women
respiratory alkalosis
three systemic diseases that can lead to nephrotic syndrome
DM, SLE, amyloidosis
elevated epo level, elevated Hct, and normal O2 saturation
RCC or other epo-producing tumor; evaluate with CT scan
55-year old man presents with irritative and obstructive urinary symtoms. Treatment options?
Likely BPH. No treatment, terazosin, finasteride, or surgical intervention (TURP)
class of drugs that may cause syndrome of muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and extrapyramidal symptoms
antipsychotics (neuroleptic malignant syndrome)
side effects of corticosteroids
acute mania, immunosuppression, thin skin, osteoporosis, easy bruising, myopathies
treatment for DTs
benzodiazepines
treatment for acetaminophen overdose
n-acetylcystein
treatment for opiod overdose
naloxone
treatment of benzodiazepine overdose
flumazenil
treatmetn for neuroleptic malignant syndrome
dantrolene or bromocriptine
lung cancer associated with SIADH
small cell lung CA