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220 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
absent radial pulse
brachial artery occlusion (extension axillary)

brachial branches to ulnar and radial arteries
what level does hypoglossal nerve exit?
medulla (preolivary sulcus) Netter plate 114
what fibers give input to cerebellum?
climbing and mossy fibers (input from contralateral cortex via MCP and ipsilateral body via ICP)
what fibers give output from cerebellum?
purkinje fibers to deep nuclei of cerebellum, then to cortex via SCP
where are rabies inclusions found?
purkinje fibers
where do spinaothalamic tract and medial lemniscus go in cortex?
VPL of thalamus
where in kidney are leaky junctions found?
PCT
what type of filament present in muscle of iris?
actin
what is responsible for motility in sperm?
9+2 arrangement microtubules (helical array of polymerized dimers of alpha and beta tubulin
pt history paralysis orbicularis oculi on R side and buccinator and facial m on R side
CN VII
sensorineural hearing loss, nerve is located at cerebellopontine angle
CN VIII
cannot look to side (prob with lateral gaze)
CN VI
what does solitary nucleus do?
visceral sensory info from CN IX and X
visceral afferents from CN VII, IX, X
sends info to pons/thalamus
lenticular nucleus degenerated in?
wilson's disease patients
hemiballismus in pt with wilson's
degen subthalamic nucleus
subthalamic nucleus lesion results in
contralateral hemiballismus
what muscle attaches at iliac crest?
gluteus medius (abducts and rotates thigh)
whre does gluteus medius attach distally?
greater trochanter of femur
visual defect with craniopharyngioma/acromegaly
bitemporal hemianopsi
outpouching of floor of diencephalon
cerebrum
where is serotonin made?
raphe nucleus
pt has dyscalculia, finger agnosia, L/R confusion where is lesion?
visual association cortex (angular gyrus) L parietal lobe

(Gerstmann's syndrome)
midgut loop fails to return to abdominal cavity
omphalocele
duplicated ureter etiology?
congenital anomaly
what is defect in horseshoe kidney?
lower poles fuse and as it ascends, get trapped under IMA
lose medial side leg sensation after CABG, nerve lost?
saphenous nerve (branch of femoral)
splenic vein empties into?
portal vein
what is portal vein composed of?
splenic vein and Superior mesenteric vein (largest vessel)
what vein does inferior mesenteric vein join?
splenic vein (which empties into portal vein)
medial epicondyle injury
ulnar nerve
adducts fingers (palmar and dorsal interossei muscles)
ulnar nerve
adduction of thumb (nerve and muscle)?
ulnar nerve
adductor pollicis muscle
lightening pain when cough
herniated disc compressing sensory root
what organelle prominent on EM of plasma cell?
rough ER

also cartwheel appearing nuclear chromatin
what is length of postgang peripheral nerve fiber?
short, near end organ
what artery bleeds during duodenal ulcer perf?
gastroduodenal artery
bicornuate uterus due to?
failed fusion paramesonephric duct
what does CN V pass through?
SOF
where is melatonin produced?
pineal gland
abdominal surgery opening cut is made how?
vertically, midline (avoid interrupting blood supply)
cleft palate arises from
maxillary prominence fails fuse with medial nasal prominence
site of hematopoiesis at 28 weeks
BM
what does schwann cell develop from?
neural crest cells

makes myelin for PNS
function oligodendrocyte?
myelin for CNS
pain and temperature on side of face controlled by which CN?
CN V
derivation adrenal medulla?
neural crest origin (S100 Ag positive)
neuroblasts develop into ganglia
loss plantar flexion, foot dorsiflexed and everted (calcaneovalgus-cavus)
tibial nerve lesion
sensory loss on sole of foot
tibial nerve injury
what loose connective tissue core is increased in MVP?
dermatan sulfate (myxomatous degeneration)
what is aortic and pulmonic valve made of?
lined by endothelium, abundant fibroelastic tissue + dense collagenous core
vascular supply of aortic and pulmonic valve?
none, avascular
wrist drop (humerus broken)
radial nerve
winged scapula (post-radical mastectomy)
LT nerve injury
what muscle paralyzed in LT nerve injury?
serratus anterior muscle
pt presents with nosebleed and rhinorrhea
fracture cribiform plate (ethmoid sinus)
bilateral INO, most likely diagnosis and pathophy?
multiple sclerosis
MLF demyelination
parathyroid derivation (embryo)?
3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouches
aortic arch 1
maxillary artery
aortic arch 2
stapedial and hyoid artery
aortic arch 3
common carotid artery and prox portion internal carotid
aortic arch 4
aortic arch on L and prox portion R subclavian artery on R
aortic arch 6
proximal portion pulmonary artery on L and ductus arteriosus
nerve runs along radial artery?
median nerve
femoral neck fracture affects which artery and what are repercussions?
medial femoral circumflex artery

aseptic necrosis of femoral head
where does sperm penetrate?
zona pellucida
type I collagen
bone tendon skin
which type collagen has greatest tensile strength?
type I
initial collagen of wound repair
type III
what is initial collagen of wound repaired replaced by?
type I collagen
collagenase with Zn as cofactor
type IV collagen
BM
type X collagen
epiphyseal plate
eye closed and cannot open, deviated down and out
CN III nerve palsy
eye down and in
trochlear nerve palsy
blunt injury to back of throat
injury to cervical sympathetic plexus results in horner's syndrome
vertical diploplia
CN IV palsy
patient presents with headache, mydriasis in R eye with lid lag, deviation eye down and out
CN III compresion (aneurysm because presents with headache)
pt recent hx bact meningitis has horizontal diplopia in L eye, worse on gave to left
CN VI palsy
bilateral lateral rectus muscle weakness
increased ICP (usually see papilledema)
paralysis upward gave in infant
parinaud's syndrome: hydrocephalus secondary to stenosis of aqueduct of sylvius
multiple ocular motor nerve disorders
DM (osmotic damage)
quadricep weakness, absent knee jerk reflex
herniated disk L3-4
fall on outstretched arm, pain in middle/lateral portion clavicle UE remains in abduction, extension, internal rotation
differential?
C5-6 injury
erb duchenne
superior brachial plexus injury (clavicular fracture)
C8-T1 injury results in?
klumpke's
paralysis of CN III after head injury
uncal herniation
ptosis of eye, mydriasis
numbness of thenar aspect of hand
carpal tunnel (median nerve)
wrist bone that has greatest incidence aseptic necrosis
scaphoid bone
which fetal vessels has greatest oxygen content?
ductus venosus, umbilical vein
what does sertoli cell synthesize?
SHBG and inhibin
what does band in skeletal muscle have?
myosin ATPase, contracts
what is last airway structure with cilia/
resp bronchiole
what makes up the resp unit?
respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveoli
which resp part has cilia but no goblet cells
terminal bronchiole
site of obstruction in asthma, CF, chronic bronchitis?
terminal bronchiole
site where turbulent air flow becomes laminar due to parallel branching of airways?
terminal bronchioles
where does post translational modifications take place?
golgi apparatus
location cyt P450 system in cell?
smooth ER
synthesis of steroids within cell?
smooth ER
site of gamma-glutamyl transferase?
smooth ER
voice is hoarse after thyroid surgery
laryngeal nerve injury
most posterior chamber in heart?
LA
occlusion of ACA would affect what part of body?
contralateral leg
weak palate, loss gag reflex, SCM weakness, loss taste to posterior third of tongue
schwanomma of jugular foramen
lesion CN III and UMN signs
weber syndrome
associated with midline, midbrain lesion
loss sensation in hands, burns without knowing it
syringomyelia
CN III and UMN signs on opposite side
midline midbrain lesion
loss pain and T and UMN signs on opposite side
mid pons lesion
MPTP abuse results in
parkinson's disease
locations of hematopoiesis prior to birth
yolk sac, liver, BM
bochdalek hernia in posterolateral part diaphragm on L
early in life, visceral contents extend into chest cavity causing severe resp distress at birth
location of damage to ear in rock n roll band player?
cochlea
what is distinguishing feature btw small and large bowel?
plicae semilunaris go around entire circumference of SB vs interrupted in Large bowel
exstrophy of bladder associated with?
epispadias (defect in genital tubercle)
defect in hypospadias?
faulty closure urethral folds
feces draining from umbilicus in 4 day old?
persistent umbilical (vitelline) sinus
urine draining from umbilicus in 4 day old?
persistent urachal sinus
femoral neck fracture can bleed into capsule and compromise which artery?
medial femoral circumflex artery
avascular necrosis
mullerian duct includes what structures?
fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, upper 1/3 vagina
wolffian ducts form?
epididymis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens
urogenital sinus forms?
vestibule, lower 2/3 vagina
wolffian duct can persist in female to form cyst
gartner duct cyst in vagina/cervix
ogonia at birth arrest in what phase?
prophase I of meiosis (primary oocytes)
primary oocytes have how many chormosomes?
46 (diploid 2n)
how many chormosomes in secondary oocyte?
23 chromosomes (haploid n)
what phase is secondary oocyte arrested in?
metaphase II at ovulation
secondary oocyte completes meiosis II when
fertilization occurs
bilateral INO indicates most likely what disease?
multiple sclerosis
components of rotator cuff?
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
rotator cuff injuries signs?
pain/weakness with active shoulder abduction
what injury occurs with shoulder dislocation?
anterior dislocation MC, injure axillary artery/nerve
tennis elbow
pain where extensor muscles insert near lateral epicondyle
golfer's elbow
medial epicondyle where flexor muscle tendons insert
transverse carpal ligament or elbow "funny bone area" can cause
ulnar nerve compression
lose reflex C4-5
biceps reflex (musculocutaneous nerve C5-6 association)
reflex loss C5-6
supinator
reflex loss C6-7
triceps reflex (associated with radial nerve C6-7)
what is deQuervain's disease?
chronic stenosing tenosynovitis of first dorsal compartment of wrist
overuse of hands/wrist

pain on radial aspect of wrist aggravated by moving thumb (abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis affected)
what does first dorsal compartment contain?
abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis
MCC bulge on dorsum of wrist when flexed
ganglion cyst (synovial cyst) filled with mucinous material
what is volkmann's ischemic contracture"
complication supracondylar fracture of humerus
injury ot brachial arter and median nerve
can result in compartment syndrome
causes of carpal tunnel syndrome?
RA/pregnancy, overuse hands/wrist, amyloidosis, hypothyroidism
carpal tunnel compression of what nerve?
median (in transverse carpal ligament of wrist)
also can be entrapped btw bellies of pronator teres muscle with radial artery
claw hand
ulnar nerve palsy
wrist drop
radial nerve palsy
midshaft fracture of humerus
radial nerve injury
waiter's tip
C5-6 injury, erb duchenne's palsy
how can you get erb duchenne palsy?
birth injury to C5-6
klumpke's
birth injury C7-8/T1
paralysis of hand
Horner's syndrome
fracture surgical neck of humerus
axillary nerve (C5-6)
axillary nerve injury can be caused by? symptoms?
dislocation of shoulder joint, fracture surgical neck of humerus

deltoid muscle paralysis (can't hold arm out parallele to ground)
arteries, nerves, tendons on radial side of wrist
raidla artery, median nerve, palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis
etiology of shin splints?
repetitive loading of ant compartment muscles of tibia
inflammation at musculotendinous insertions

aka "stress fractures"
MC site for compartment syndrome of leg
anterior of tibia
MCC low back pain?
spasmof paraspinal muscles
ligament strain of low back pain?
anteiror/post longitudinal ligaments
nerve root irritation for low back pain?
disc herniation (nerve root compression)
diseases involving vertebral columns causing low back pain?
met, MM, osteoporosis (compression fractures)
MCC intervertebral disc disease
degeneration fibrocartilage/nucleus pulposus
straight leg test for?
disc herniation causing radiation of pain down back of leg
sensory loss of L5-S1 disc herniation?
lateral and posterior calf, plantar foot
what reflex lost in L5-S1 disc herniation?
achilles tendon reflex
motor deficit in L5-S1 disc herniation?
plantar flexion/foot eversion (peroneus longus/brevis)
sensory loss of L4-5 disc herniation?
dorsum of foot + webbed space btw great toe and second toe
motor deficit for L4-5 disc herniation?
loss dorsiflexion big toe due to weakness extensor hallucis longus
sensory loss for L3-4 disc herniation?
medial leg to malleolus
reflex loss due to L3-4 disc herniation?
knee jerk (femoral nerve for L2-4)
motor deficit for L3-4 disc herniation?
quad weakness, weak knee extension
loss dorsiflexion foot (tibialis anterior)
cauda equina syndrome
bowel/bladder dysfunction
saddle area anesthesia
spondylolisthesis
forward subluxation one vertebral body on another
MCC spondylolisthesis?
spondylosis--defect vertebral lamina with separation from main body of vertebra
superior gluteal nerve injury causes?
surgery, DMD, waddling gait
trandelenburg gait
superior gluteal nerve injury
whta does superior gluteal nerve suply?
gluteus medius/minimus
superior gluteal nerve injury causes
loss abduction of thigh and inability to pull pelvis down
what does inferior gluteal nerve supply?
gluteus maximus
inferior gluteal nerve injury
patient cannot walk, leans backward when heel strikes ground
can't rise, jump, climb stairs
MC site sciatic nerve entrapment
sciatic notch in buttocks
peroneal nerve injury signs and symptoms?
loss dorsiflexion (tibilais anterior), loss foot eversion (weak peroneus longus/brevis)
EQUINOVARUS deformity (foot drop, inversion foot)
what relfex lost in peroneal nerve injury?
ankle
MC site entrapment of peroneal nerve?
behind knee, common in people who cross legs
MC site for lateral femoral nerve entrapment?
inguinal ligament (produces meralgia paresthetica)
numbness/burning over lateral part of thigh when walking/standing
common in obese
obturator nerve injury
L2-4
leg swings out when walking (loss hip adduction)
sensory loss medial thigh, lose knee reflex
what reflex lost in obturator nerve injury?
knee reflex
tibial nerve injury
L4-S3
loss plantar flexion of foot (gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris)
loss flexion of toes (flexor digitorum longus/hallucis longus)
foot inversion (tibialis posterior)
CALCANEOVALGOCAVUS (dorsiflexion, inversion of foot)
what reflex lost in tibial nerve injury?
ankle
femoral nerve injury
injury in area of femoral triangle (common site for catheterization punctures)
motor deficit in femoral nerve injury?
cannot flex thigh (sartorius, ilacus muscle)
cannot extend leg (quadricep muscle)
loss knee jerk reflex
kyphosis (if severe, resp acidosis)
MCC kyphosis in adolescents
muscular postural problems (tall adolescents)
scheuermann's disease
abnormal vertebral end plates leading to disc herniations into Schmorl's nodes
scoliosis
lateral curvature of spine
adolescent girls 10-16 yrs
right thoracic curve
test to evaluate meniscus injuries?
McMurray test
attachments of ACL
anterior part of tibia to lateral condyle of femur
attachments of PCL
posterior part of tibia to medial condyle of femur
test used to eval cruciate ligaments of knee
anterior and posterior draw test
medial collateral ligament function
support medial side knee joint
attaches medial epicondyle of femur with shaft of tibia
resists valgus and external rotational forces of prox tibia
lateral colalteral ligament function
support lateral side knee joint
attaches lateral epicondyle femur to head of fibula
resist varus forces and internal rotational forces of proximal fibula
MC internal derangement of knee joint
medial meniscus injury
valgus injury (clipping in football)
damages medial menisucs, medial collateral ligament, ACL
positive McMurray's test
varus injury
lateral meniscus injury, lateral collaterla ligament
positive Mcmurray's test
MC ligament injury
ACL
secondary to clipping/skiing
positive anterior draw sign
PCL injury mechanism
hyperextension of knee secondary to anterior force pushing tibia in posterior direction
posterior draw test
MCC ankle sprain
lateral ankle ligaments
inversion of plantar flexed foot
MC lateral ligament sprained
anterior talofibular ligament (stabilization plantar flexion in foot)
MC nerve injured with clavicular fracture
ulnar nerve
MC nerve injured in proximal humerus fracture
axillary
mid shaft distal third of humerus fracture
radial nerve (travels in spiral groove)
MCC pain in elbow, inability supinate forearm in 1-4 year old
subluxation of headof radius
MC fracture assoc with falling on outstretched hand
colles fracture (distal radius)
second MC fracture in osteoporosis in women
MC carpal bone fracture
scaphoid (anatomical snuff box pain)
aseptic necrosis
MC hips dislocations
posterior (car accident)
danger damage to sciatic nerve
limb shortened, flexed, adducted, internally rotated at hip
anterior hip dislocation
limb abducted, externally rotated
femoral artery vein and nerve compromised
aseptic necrosis of femoral head
anterior hip dislocation
MC femoral fracture
femoral neck fracture
groin/knee pain
complications of femoral fracture?
aseptic necrosis of femoral head
damage to medial femoral circumflex artery
MC foot bone fracture after fall from height
calcaneus
MC fracture associated with ecchymoses of mastoid, basilar skull fracture
petrous portion temporal bone
otorrhea (CSF fluid out of ear)
MC fracture associated with rhinorrhea
orbital fracture
raccoon eyes (periorbital hemorrhage/opthalmoplegia)
pt with spasticity and loss tactile discrimination and vibratory sensation
subacute combined degeneartion B12 def
foreign body in alveolus is
phagocytosed by alveolar macrophage
hemineglect
R parietal
mass in L temporal lobe, visual defect?
right upper quadrantanopia