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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Visual Constancies
- Translational Invariance – can recognize object if it moves, not memorizing retinal image
- Size (Depth) Invariance
- Orientation (Shape) Invariance – rotation
Viewer-centered coordinates
- Description of object relative to the viewer
- If object moves, it has a new description
- If viewer moves, it has a new description
Object-centered coordinates
- Description of object relative to itself
- If object moves, description remains the same
- If viewer moves, description remains the same
Word Superiority Effect
people can more accurately identify flashed letter if incorporated into a word (top-down information)
Associative Agnosia
- Difficulty recognizing variety of visually presented objects
- Normal recognition of objects through modalities other than vision
Intact visual sensation
Prosopagnosia
- Inability to recognize faces
- Does visual face recognition work in different way than visual recognition of other types of objects?
Expertise Effect
if you’re good at recognizing something, holistic representation of object in mind; if we don’t have expertise, we analyze parts; humans are experts with faces
Uni-lateral neglect
Patients seem virtually unaware of one region of space
Pre-Attentive Visual Processing
individual features are extracted simultaneously (for the entire visual field at once) and automatically (without attention being focused on any one part of the visual field)
Attentive Visual Processing
visual features are combined into representations of surfaces and objects (via the use of attention) – mental binding of features of object
Evidence for Visual Feature Extraction
- Individual visual features (e.g., motion) can be adapted – waterfall illusion (after watching waterfall, rock wall appears to be moving up, exhausting feature detectors)
- Segmentation “pop out”
- “Pop out” in visual search
- Pre-Attentive: search for single feature: parallel, level 1
- Attentive: search for conjunction of features: serial, level 2
- Illusory conjunctions: errors at level 2
Wolfe's problems with visual feature extraction theory
- nature of pre-attentive processing (order seems to be opposite: Pre-attentive processing: late visual areas – obtain coarse gist of scene, Attentive processing: early visual areas – obtain fine details of scene, Requires feedback from late areas to early areas)
- Is search serial or parallel?
Passive Vision
- Static image
- Processing occurs in parallel across image
- Progresses from gray-scale retinal input to internal representation in head
Problems with passive vision
- Aim is to form a mental representation (no notion of an observer’s goal or task)
- Ignores inhomogeneity of retina
- Assumes trans-saccadic integration is flawless and easy
- Ignores eye movements in its theories of attention
Active Vision
- Emphasis on task – goal of vision is to enable observer to perform task – what you see is what you need
- Mental representation of visual scene is incomplete – representation emphasizes task-relevant details
- Blindness to task-irrelevant aspects of visual scene
- Relationship between vision and memory – Why form a mental representation of a visual object? If you need to know what an object looks like, then move your eyes and look at it
Reading -- factors that affect visual behavior
Genre - more wpm for light fiction than for biology
Age - more fixations per line for young children than for college students
Gaze-contingent methodology with moving window
modifications made to letters within 3-4 spaces to the left of fixation point or 15 spaces to the right of fixation point result in slower reading speeds
Asymmetric perceptual span
direction of asymmetry changes when reading Hebrew
TICS Article -- Hayhoe and Ballard
- Observers position their eyes at each moment in time at the point in a scene that is currently most important for an on-going task
- Very few irrelevant areas are fixated
- “just-in-time” strategy – observers acquire specific visual info they need just at the point it is required in the task
- Eye movement patterns must be learned – expert/novice differences
Mental Rotation of 3-D Objects – Roger Shepard and Jacqueline Metzler
Subjects view two images of objects, and must decide if the objects are the same or different. If the objects are the same, the images depict the object at different orientations. Reaction times are measured.
visual imagery related to same mental representations of stimuli normally engaged by the visual perception of those stimuli -- brain imaging studies
Roland and Friberg (1985) -- Increased blood flow in visual cortical areas during visual imagery task, but not during other cognitive tasks
visual imagery related same mental representations of stimuli normally engaged by the visual perception of those stimuli -- brain-injured patients
Levine, Warach, Farah (1985) -- Patient with visual object identification difficulties was unable to draw familiar objects, despite being able to draw the relative locations of furniture in his house; Patient with visual object localization difficulties was unable when blindfolded to point to the furniture in his room, despite being able to give detailed descriptions of the appearance of familiar objects