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36 Cards in this Set

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entrada da água no solo que é influenciada pela manejo do solo.
infiltracão
representa a taxa de entrada da água no interior do solo (lâmina/tempo, volume/unidade de area na unidade de tempo)
velocidade de infiltracão (VI)
a taxa máxima (f) com que um dado solo numa dada situacão pode absorver água (L/T, mm/hr, cm/hr)
capacidade de infiltracão (CI)
TA =
taxa de aplicacão
Se P ou TA < CI implica que
VI = TA
Não há escoamento superficial
Se P ou TA > CI implica que
VI = CI
Há escoamento superficial
Quais são as três etapas de infiltracão?
1. entrada de água no solo
2. transmissão de água no solo
3. deplecão da capacidade de armazenamento de água no solo
fatores que afetam a entrada de água no solo (6):
1. volume de água precipitada
2. intensidade de chuva
3. qualidade da água
4. uso do solo
5. compactacão superficial do solo
6. matéria orgânica e litter
fatores que afetam a transmissão (3):
1. características do solo (porosidade, estrutura, textura)
2. compactacão em profundidade e camadas impermiáveis
3. porosidade
fatores que afetam a capacidade de armazenamento (3):
1. porosidade do solo
2. profundidade do solo
3. teor ou conteúdo de água anterior
As texturas do solo: areia e argilla têm capacidades de infiltracão diferentes. Qual textura tem uma maior CI?
água pode escoar mais livre nos solos mais arenosos, portanto, a textura areia tem CI maior e uma armazenamento de água menor.
características de infiltracão nos ecossistemas florestais (4)
1. alta producão de matéria orgânica e litter
2. protecão contra gotas da chuva que podem causar compactacão, erosão, e eventualmente, escoamento superficial.
3. desenvolvimento de raízes
4. alta eficiência de litter e matéria orgânica em absorver, reter, e liberar água para o solo.
modos para medir a infiltracão
(3):
1. simulador de chuva
2. infiltrômetro
3. balanco de massas em bacias hidrográficas
O que é a balança hídrica?
A quantificação entre as relações das diferentes fases do ciclo hidrológico.
Equação do balanço hídrico...
Q = P – E + or - S
Explain the changes in evapotranspiration as a plantation progresses through its various stages.
Plantio = starts low, Maturação = increases to its peak stage,
Colheita = decreases after harvest.
Define evaporation as a physical process
Evaporation is primarily a function of temperature and humidity. Energy added to a water body causes a fase change from a liquid to a gas.
What drives evapotranspiration in a forest system?
The local climate, ie. changes in pressure, temperature, and humidity, is the primary factor. But also, soil type and soil humidity and the type of vegetation can influence evapotranspiration.
What is the difference between evaporation and transpiration?
They are essentially the same. However, transpiration invloves the evaporation of water molecules through plant structures called estomatos, instead of from free bodies of water lying at the surface.
O que é evapotranspiração? .
Evapotranspiração engloba tanto transpiração como evaporação, e também inclui evaporação de água interceptada pela vegetação. Portanto, vegetação desempenha um papel muito importante nesse processo.
Name a tool for measuring evapotranspiration.
Atmometro
Name some direct methods for measuring actual and potential evapotranspiration.
There doesn't exist a direct method for measuring actual evapotranspiration, only potential evp through the use of lysimetros.
Name some indirect methods for measuring actual and potential evp.
Actual evp can be measured using the water balance equation while potential can be measured using the Thornwaite equation.
What is soil water?
Water retained in the top layer of the zone of aeration of the soil. The layer of soil is close enough to the surface so that the water can pass into the atmosphere through evaporation. This layer is close enough to the surface so that it can be influenced by weather and climate.
The three phases of soil water...
1. liquid
2. gas
3. soilid (
Soil texture... how is it important for soil water?
areia, silte, argilla... the smaller the particle size, the greater is the surface area and therefore, the potential for chemical and physical reactions in the environment. Smaller particles like clay are better able to retain water, while sand is not. Also, the larger the particles, the greater the pore size. The pore sizes are smaller in clay soils and the water is eeasily retained in the small capilaries.
Soil structure... how is it important for soil water?
granular, laminar, em blocos... well structured soils allow for water to pass freely, while soils with poor structure do not. Structure can be affected by land use.
What is hygroscopic water?
Water vapor retained by soil particles and originally contained in the atmosphere.
What is agua capilar?
Water retained by capilarity in the soil, above the aquifer (lencol freatico)
What is gravitational water?
Water in the non-saturated zone that circulates freely and is under the influence of gravity.
What is the Capacidade de campo?
The quantity of water retained in a sample of soil after drainage of the excess of gravitational water.
Permanent wilting point (ponto de murcha permanente)
The point at which plants can no longer extract water from the soil and begin to wilt (murchar)
Water availability
The quantity of water in the soil that is available for plant use. It is the quantity of water in the soil that is between the field capacity and the permanent wilting point.
Terms for water in the soil (6)
1. Agua higroscopico
2. Agua capilar
3. Agua gravitacional
4. Capacidade de campo
5. Ponto de murcha permanente
6. Agua disponivel
How is soil water measured?
1. gravimetrica
2. resistencia eletrica
3. radiacao
How is water measured in the aquifer?
1. Piezometros
2. Sensor de nivel de agua