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41 Cards in this Set

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ANATOMY MEANS??




STUDY OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE BODY. HOW THE PARTS ARE PUT TOGETHER
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PHYSIOLOGY MEANS??




STUDY OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE BODY. HOW THE BODY PARTS WORK
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5 STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF BODY ORGANIZATION

1. CHEMICAL
2. CELLULAR
3. TISSUE
4. ORGAN
5. SYSTEM
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WHAT DOES THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE MEAN?





ATOMS AND MOLECULES - CHON
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WHAT DOES THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE MEAN?





SMALLEST LIVING UNITS OR CELLS-MUSCLE
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WHAT DOES THE TISSUE STRUCTURE MEAN?




GROUP OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF TISSUE TOGETHER TO PERFORM A FUNCTION
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WHAT DOES THE SYSTEM STRUCTURE MEAN?




VARIOUS ORGANS ARRANGED TO PERFORM COMPLEX BODY FUNCTIONS-CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
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ANATOMICAL POSITION MEANS?

REFERENCE POSITION USED TO DESCRIBE BODY PARTS AND REGIONS.

STANDING, ARMS AT SIDE, PALMS FORWARD, HEAD AND FEET POINTING FORWARD
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ANATOMICAL DIRECTIONS
1. SUPERIOR--TOWARD HEAD
2. INFERIOR--TOWARD FEET
3. ANTERIOR/VENTRAL--FRONT SIDE
4. POSTERIOR/DORSAL--BACK SIDE
5. MEDIAL-TOWARD MIDLINE OF BODY
6. LATERAL-TOWARD THE SIDE OF BODY-AWAY FROM MIDLINE
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ANATOMICAL DIRECTIONS
7. PROXIMAL--NEAR TRUNK OF THE BODY
8. DISTAL--FARTHEST AWAY FROM TRUNK OF THE BODY
9. SUPERFICIAL--NEAR BODY SURFACE
10. DEEP--FARTHEST AWAY FROM BODY SURFACE
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BODY PLANES
1. SAGITTAL--DIVIDES BODY INTO RIGHT AND LEFT SECTIONS
2. MIDSAGITTAL-2 EQUAL HALVES
3. FRONTAL--DIVIDES INTO ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR
4. TRANSVERSE--DIVIDES INTO UPPER & LOWER
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BODY CAVITIES: VENTRAL & DORSAL
1. VENTRAL: FRONT--THORACIC CAVITY, HEART AND LUNGS

- - - - - DIAPHRAGM- - - - - - - -

2. ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY--INCLUDES INTESTINES AND OTHER INTERNAL ORGANS
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BODY CAVITIES

2. DORSAL: BACK

CRANIAL CAVITY--INCLUDES BRAIN

SPINAL CAVITY--INCLUDES SPINAL CORD
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WHAT IS CHEMISTRY??
1. STUDY OF MATTER

WHAT IS MATTER??

ANYTHING THAT HAS WEIGHT AND TAKES UP SPACE
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WHAT IS AN ATOM?
1. SMALLEST PART OF A SUBSTANCE

3 PARTS OF AN ATOM
1. PROTONS
2. NEUTRONS
3. ELECTRONS
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WHAT ARE PROTONS?
1. POSITIVE PART FOUND IN NUCLEUS

WHAT ARE NEUTRONS?
1. NO CHARGE IN NUCLEUS WITH PROTONS

WHAT ARE ELECTRONS?
1. NEGATIVE CHARGE OUTSIDE NUCLEUS IN ORBITS
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PROTONS AND NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS


*PROTONS WILL EQUAL NEUTRONS

2 ON FIRST LEVEL
8 ON NEXT LEVEL
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MOLECULE??
1. TWO OR MORE ATOMS UNITED TOGETHER

2 KINDS OF MOLECULES
1. ELEMENT
2. COMPOUND
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ELEMENT?
1. MADE OF LIKE ATOMS (O2) OR (H2)

COMPOUND?
1. MADE OF UNLIKE ATOMS (H20) OR (C02)

IONS?
1. ELECTRICALLY CHARGED ATOMS
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ELECTROLYTES?
1. MOLECULES THAT FORM IONS WHEN IN SOLUTION

**OPPOSITE CHARGES ATTRACT--LIKE CHARGES REPEL
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IONIC BONDING MEANS? ELECTRON TRANSFER
(1) 4 OR MORE WANTS TO GIVE
(2) 5 OR MORE WANTS TO TAKE
(3) NOT STABLE FALL APART EASY
(4) LOSS OF ONE OR MORE ELECTRONS BY AN ATOM & GAIN OF THOSE ELECTRONS BY ANOTHER, RESULT=POSITIVE & NEGATIVE ATOMS THAT ATTRACT
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AXIAL--INCLUDES

1. HEAD
2. NECK
3. TORSO
4. TRUNK
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APPENDICULAR--INCLUDES

1. LIMBS --ARMS AND LEGS
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WHAT IS HOMEOSTASIS?

1. RELATIVE CONSTANCY OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT

2. STATE OF BALANCE WITHIN THE BODY NECESSARY TO MAINTAIN HEALTH & SURVIVAL
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2 FEEDBACK LOOPS

1. NEGATIVE FEEDBACK LOOP--OPPOSE A CHANGE IN CONDITION (BODY GETS COLD, MUSCLES SHIVER TO INCREASE THE BODY TEMP)

2. POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP--THEY ARE STIMULATORY THAT AMPLIFY THE CHANGE OCCURING (CONTRACTIONS WHEN HAVING A BABY)
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COVALENT BONDING MEANS?

ELECTRON SHARING

1. TWO OR MORE ELECTRONS SHARE ELECTRONS ON THEIR OUTER SHELL. NOT EASILY BROKEN
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PH, ACIDS, BASES

PH? THE CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN IONS H+

ACIDS? COMPOUND THAT GIVES OFF H+ IONS

BASE? COMPOUND THAT PICKS UP H+ IONS
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PH SCALE

( 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14)
1-6 ACID
7-NEUTRAL
8-ABOVE ALKALINE
BLOOD IS 7.35-7.45 (SLIGHTLY ALKALINE)
.
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--MUSCLES OF HEAD AND NECK--
ORBICULARIS OCULI--CLOSE EYE (WINK/SQUINT)

ORBICULARIS ORIS--CLOSE MOUTH (PUCKER)

BUCCINATOR--PUFF UP CHEEKS & WHISTLE

MASSETER--CLOSES JAW FOR CHEWING

STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID--TOTATES & FLEXES HEAD & NECK
.
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--MUSCLES OF UPPER EXTREMITIES--
1. TRAPEZIUS-EXTEND HEAD & NECK, ADDUCT SCAPULA
2. LATISSIMUS DORSI-EXTENDS & ADDUCTS UPPER ARM (SWIM)
3. PECTORALIS MAJOR-FLEXES & ADDUCTS ARM
4. DELTOID-ABDUCT UPPER ARM (INJECTION SITE)
5. BICEPS BRACHII-FLEXES FOREARM
6. TRICEPS BRACHII-EXTENDS FOREARM
.
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MUSCLES OF THE TRUNK & FUNCTIONS

1. DIAPHRAGM-FUNCTION (RESPIRATIONS)
2. EXTERNAL INTERCOASTALS
3. EXTERNAL & INTERNAL OBLIQUE, TRANSVERS ABDOMINIS AND RECTUS ABDOMINIS (COMPRESSES ABDOMEN & FLEXES TRUNK)
.
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MUSCLES OF LOWER EXTEMITIES--
1. GLUTEUS MAXIMUS--EXTENDS THIGH
2. GLUTEUS MEDIUS-ABDUCTS THIGH-INJECTION
3. ADDUCTORS--ADDUCT THIGH
4. SARTORIS-FLEXES THIGH & ROTATE LOWER LEG, TO CROSS LEGS
,
,
MORE MUSCLES OF THE LOWER EXTEMITIES--
5. QUADRICEPS (RECTUS FEMORIS (INJECTION), AND VASTUS LATERALIS (INJECTION)..EXTEND LOWER LEG (KICK)
6. BICEPS FEMORIS (HAMSTRING GROUP)-FLEXES LOWER LEG
7. GASTROCNEMIUS--EXTEND FOOT (PLANTAR FLEX) POINT TOE
8. TIBIALIS ANTERIOR-DORSIFLEX FOOT--PULLING FOOT UP (WALK ON HILLS)
.
.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF SKELETAL SYSTEM:

1. BONES
2. JOINTS
3. MADE OF HARD CONNECTIVE TISSUE
4. CALCIUM MAKES BONES HARD
.
.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM:

1. SUPPORTS, PROVIDES A FRAMEWORK
2. PROTECTS INTERNAL ORGANS
3. HELPS MAKE MOVEMENT POSSIBLE
4. STORES CALCIUM
5. BLOOD CELL FORMATION
,
,
TYPES OF BONES


1. LONG--UPPER ARM, LEG
2. SHORT--WRIST AND HAND
3. FLAT--SKULL AND RIBS, PELVIS,STERNUM
4. IRREGULAR--VERTEBRAE AND KNEE CAP
,
,
PARTS OF A LONG BONE
1. DIAPHYSIS--SHAFT
2. EPIPHYSIS-END OF THE BONE
3. MEDULLARY CAVITY-HOLLOW AREA IS DIAPHYSIS
4. YELLOW BONE MARROW-BLOOD CELL PRODUCING TISSUE IN EPIPHYSES & FLAT BONES
.
.
**MORE PARTS OF A LONG BONE**

PERIOSTEUM--CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANE THAT COVERS DIAPHYSIS

ENDOSTEUM--CONNECTIVE TISSUE THAT LINES MEDULLARY CAVITY

ARTICULAR CARTILAGE-THIN LAYER OF CARTILAGE THAT COVERS EPIPHSIS
.
.
COMPACT BONE
1. HARD DENSE BONE
2. FOUND ON OUTER PART OF EPIPHYSIS & THE BULK OF DIAPHYSIS
3. COMPOSED OF MANY LAYERS OF CALCIFIED MATRIX W/HAVERSIAN OR CENTRAL CANALS, THAT SERVE AS PASSAGEWAYS FOR BLOOD VESSELS & NERVES
.
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SPONGY BONE--POROUS BONE

1. HAS MANY SPACES
2. FOUND INSIDE THE EPIPHYSIS
3. FILLED WITH RED BONE MARROW
,
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CRAINAL BONES
1. FRONTAL--FOREHEAD
2. PARIETAL--TOP & UPPER LATERAL HEAD
3. TEMPORAL--"EAR" AREA-LOWER LATERAL HEAD
4. OCCIPITAL--BACK OF THE HEAD
5. SPHENOID
,
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