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59 Cards in this Set

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The improper closure of the mitral valve
Mitral Valve Prolapse
The thickest layer of the heart and is responsible for pumping blood. It is referred to as the “muscle of the heart”
Myocardium
The outermost layer of the heart
Epicardium
Separates the RIGHT and LEFT ventricles
Interventricular Septum
Interarterial Septum
Separates the RIGHT and LEFT atriums
Name the 2 regions of the heart
1. The right side of the heart- pumps deoxygenated or very low oxygenated blood to the lungs.
Also called the “pulmonary circuit”

2. The left side of the heart- pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body
Also called the “systemic circuit”
Name the 4 chambers of the heart
1. Right Atrium- receives deoxygenated blood returning from body tissues
2. Left Atrium- receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
3. Right Ventricle- pumps blood received from right atrium to lungs to be oxygenated.
4. Left Ventricle-pumps the blood from left atrium which is oxygenated to all parts of the body
The name of the finger like projections in the ventricles?
Papillary muscles
What are Chordae tendinae?
Fibrous threads both tricuspid valve and bicuspid valve are attached by these fibrous threads to the muscles in the wall of the ventricles
Name the 4 valves of the heart
Tricuspid valve (A.V)
Bicuspid Valve or Mitral Valve (A.V.)
Pulmonic Valve or Pulmonary Valve (S.L.)
Aortic Valve (S.L.)
Blood Flow
1. Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
2. Right Atrium
3. Tricuspid Valve
4. Right Ventricle
5. Pulmonary Valve
6. Pulmonary Artery
7. Lungs
8. Pulmonary Veins
9. Left Atrium
10. Bicuspid or Mitral Valve
11. Left Ventricle
12. Aortic Valve
13. Aorta
Heart Sounds
due to the vibrations in the blood caused by the valves closing.
What is a murmur?
Abnormal heart sound
The Return of Blood to the Heart
1. Blood from the extremities is pushed toward the heart by contractions of skeletal muscles which compress the veins and force the blood to move forward
2. Breathing- inhalation flattens the diaphragm and puts pressure on the large abdominal veins. Expansion of the chest causes pressure to drop in the chest. Together these actions help push and pull blood throughout the body and return it to the heart.
Carry blood away from the heart to body tissue
Systemic Arteries
The Blood Supply to the Myocardium
2 Coronary Arteries
1. Right Coronary Artery
2. Left Coronary Artery
Circumflex Artery
Great Cardiac Vein
Interventricular Sulcus
a diagonal groove located between the two ventricles of the heart. Along this groove lies the:
1. Anterior Interventricular Artery
2. Great Cardiac Vein
Interventricular Sulcus
The conduction system has 2 phases
1. Systole = contraction
2. Diastole = relaxation
Diastole
relaxation
To initiate an impulse. “The Pacemaker”. This impulse travels through the atrial myocardium and causes the atriums to contract simultaneously
Sinoatrial Node
A.V. located in the floor of the right atrium. Conducts impulses, which allows time for the atrium to finish the contraction phase.
The A.V. node will then pass the impulse on to the bundles and branches to stimulate the ventricles to contract.
Atrioventricular Node
Angina
A DECREASE blood flow through these arteries induces attacks of angina= cramplike choking feeling which is due to lack of oxygen to the myocardium
Blood vessels that “bend” or wind around the heart
Circumflex Artery
Contraction
Systole
Drains blood through the capillaries of the myocardium
Great Cardiac Vein
Exits the heart via the right ventricle as a single trunk but branches into the:
-Right pulmonary artery
-Left pulmonary vein
Pulmonary Artery
To circulate blood throughout the body. It begins and ends with the heart
Circulatory System
What transports the blood?
Blood vessels
Blood contains the following 4 things?
Oxygen
Nutrients
Carbon Dioxide
Waste
3 Categories of Blood Vessels
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Carry blood AWAY from the heart
Arteries
Carry blood to the heart
Veins
Connect branches of arteries and branches of veins
Capillaries
Small arteries away from the heart are called?
Arteioles
Small veins far away from the heart are called?
Venules
Carry blood from the heart to the lungs
Pulmonary Arteries
Name the 4 major arteries
Ascending Aorta
Aortic Arch
Thoracic Aorta
Abdominal Aorta
To supply blood to the myocardium layer of the heart?
Ascending Aorta
To supply blood to the head, neck, arm, face, scalp, pharynx, brain, larynx, shoulder, hand, fingers
Aortic Arch
To supply to the thoracic wall muscles, bronchi, respitory tract, pericardium = layer of the heart, esophagus, and diaphragm.
Thoracic Aorta
To supply blood to the liver, stomach, pancreas, spleen, small and large intestine, kidneys, gonads=ovaries/testes, lower extremities, urinary muscles, leg muscles, knee, foot, and ankle.
Abdominal Aorta
Carry blood from body tissue to the heart
Systemic Veins
Carry blood from the lungs to the heart
Pulmonary Veins
To drain blood from head, neck, arm, brain, face, scalp, shoulders, thoracic wall, abdominal wall. (Goes to heart in chamber).
Superior Vena Cava
To drain blood from liver, digestive tract, stomach, small and large intestines, pancreas, kidneys, gonads=ovaries/testes, pelvic muscle, urinary muscle, lower extremities. (Goes to heart)
Inferior Vena Cava
6 Major Veins
Superior Vena Cava
Inferior Vena Cava
Right and Left Internal Jugular Vein
Right and Left External Jugular Vein
Name the 4 Jugular Veins
Right and Left Internal Jugular Vein
Right and Left External Jugular Vein
To drain blood from brain and face
Right and Left Internal Jugular Vein
To drain blood from skin, muscles of face, scalp, and neck
Right and Left External Jugular Vein
To keep blood flowing in one direction “TO the HEART”
venous valves
The vein becomes dilated (enlarged) and twisted and accumulates blood. The blood pooling can cause blood clot. SYMPTOMS: low blood pressure, edema, leg warmer to the touch.
Varicose Veins
The smallest of blood vessels and the most numerous.
They are located between the arterioles and venules
This is where gas exchange occurs
Capillaries
4 Circulation Types
1. Coronary Circulation
2. Pulmonary Circulation
3. Hepatic Circulation
4. Cerebral Circulation
Blood flow between the heart and the layers of the heart
Coronary Circulation
Circulation of blood from the heart to the lungs back to the heart
Pulmonary Circulation
Circulation of blood from the heart to the liver back to the heart
Hepatic Circulation
Circulation of blood from the heart to the brain back to the heart
Cerebral Circulation
The heart is a muscular pump that provides the force necessary to circulate blood to all the tissues of the body

The normal adult heart pumps about 5 liters of blood every minute. (The size of the heart varies with the size of an individual. The average size of an adult heart is the size of a closed fist. 9 cm wide
12 cm long
The heart is a muscular pump that provides the force necessary to circulate blood to all the tissues of the body

The normal adult heart pumps about 5 liters of blood every minute. (The size of the heart varies with the size of an individual. The average size of an adult heart is the size of a closed fist. 9 cm wide
12 cm long
The inner layer of the heart
Endocardium