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88 Cards in this Set

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the method of talking to others: you rephrase the person's comments to show you understand
reflective listening
parents use indirect methods and modeling to influence their child's behavior.
nuturing parenting style
parents are sometimes athoritarian and sometimes permissive, depending to some extent on the parents mood.
authoritative parenting style
parents have little or no control over their children and refrain forn disciplinary measures.
permissive parenting style
parents strive complete control over their chidren's behavior by establishing complex sets of rules.
authoritarian parenting style
groups known for certain values , attitudes, or activities.
crowds
a subgroup within a culture in this case a social culture.
subculture
the belief that homosexuality is the result of experiences form significant others.
learning theory of homosexuality
freud's theory that if a child's first sexual feeling about the parent of the opposite sex are strongly punished, the child may develop a permanent homosexual orientation.
psychoanalytic theory of homosexuality
the theory that some factor in a person's DNA affects temperament, which affects sexual orientation.
biopsychosocial theory of homsexuality
an outbreak of genital sores, it is curable
genital herpes
infection that often results from chlamydia or gonorrhea and frequently causes prolonged problems, including infertilly.
pelvis imfammatory disease
well know veneral infection
gonorrhea
bacterial infection may cause infertility
chlamydia
a viral infection transmitted through sex or shared needles
hepatitis b
a STD that presents a great danger in that in its early stage there are no symptoms. it untreated, can be fatal.
syphilis
gangs can become a vehicle for tearing their members away form the main _______ ______ of society.
social structure
gangs can be cohesive because of their funtion as a _______ _________ for adolescents with strong depenency needs.
family substitute
some of the function of gangs include protection, recognition of desire to feel wanted, rites of passage taht mark ____________ , status, and acceptance.
achievement
in general, the study by johnston and associates found a slight ____________ in abuse of substances in recent years.
decrease
contrary to the stereotypes, most teenagers who become pregnant had been in a relationship for at least ______ ________
six months
early coitus had been found to be highly associated with three adverse conditions: __________, __________, and _______________ ____ ___________.
STDs, pregnancies, abnormal pap smears
the largest increase in the pregnancy rate is occuring among those under the age of _________
15
studies show that the age group at the greatest risk for sexually trasmitted infections is ___________
adolescent
other sexually trasmitted infections include, PID, syphilis, genital herpes, and hepatitis b.
gonorrhea
considering some of te reasons for adolescent sexual activity, it is not surprising that nearly 70 percent of twelfth graders report having had ____________ _________.
sexual intercourse
rather taht talking to __________ about sexual abuse, teens choose to talk with friends or tell no one at all.
parents
it is estimated that by the end of adolescence, more than 80 percent of boys and ________ percent of girls will have been sexually active.
70
currently the three theories that attempt to explain homosexuality include psychoanalytic theory, _____________ theory, and the biopsychosocial theory of homosexuality.
learning
whereas peers teach adolescents about social relationships outside the famiy, adults provide a source of guidance in forming ___________ and setting goals.
values
the influences of peer group serve important social and __________ functions.
psychological
girls from _________ __________ ___________ are more likely to leave home after high school than peers.
single parent families
the three styles of parenting most often identified by researchers are authoritarian, permissive, and ___________.
autoritative
divorce tends to occur most often in families with a newborn and second in families with an _________
adolescent
in study on parenting styles in which at least one of the adolescents in a family was highly creative, parents were found to employ a style of parenting called __________
nuturing
within families that experience divorce, there are some interesting gender differences. divorce generally has more adverse effects on _________ than on __________.
boys, girls
five funtions that were provides by the famiy were now provided elsewhere: education, religious, recreational, medical, and __________.
economic
what reason is cited in the text for why there may be a decline in early sexual activity?
concern about AIDS and other STDs
the first stage of sexuality
is autosexuality
the genetic theory of homosexuality claims that
persons born with a predispositioncan be influenced by the environment to either select or avoid homosexuality.
although he has a girlfriend, steve wants to prove to his friends that he can "score" with a number of different girls in school. steve's nonsexual motive for sex is to

a. get affection
b. comfirm his masculinity
c. ensure fidelity of his girlfriend
d. obtain greater self-esteem
confirm his masculinity
a female who "acts out" by running away, engaging in sexual promiscuity, or damaging her school performance may be a victim of

a. drug abuse
b. peer pressure
c. extreme lonliness
d. sexual abuse
sexual abuse
the CDC estimates how many people in the united sates are currently infected with the inital virus of AIDS?

a. 50000
b. 10000
c. 500000 to 600000
d. 1 to 1.5 million
1 to 1.5 million
itravenous drug users, homosexual men, and inner-city neterosexuals are grouped most at risk for contracting

a. syphilis
b. genital herpes
c. hepatitis b
d. gonorrhea
hepatitis b
situations that cause us to make major decisions about our identity.
identiy crisis
onset of menstruation
menarche
one of the triggering mechanisms of puberty that may be used to indicate the onset of adolescence.
hormonal balance
to solve problems that have only one correct answer, we are using

a. divergent thinking
b. convergent thinking
c. creative thinking
d. critical thinking
convergent thinking
according to john hill's biopsychosocial theory,which three factors are most involved?
biological, psychosocial, and social
when teens believe they are being scruntinized for thier behavior and physical appearance they are

a. egoncentric
b. creating an imaginary audience
c. creating a personal fable
d. exaggerating their abilites and skills
creating an imaginary audience
new ideas: creative thinking:: existing ideas: _________.

a. convergent thinking
b. critical thinkin
c. divergent thinking
d. preoperational thinking
critical thinking
ann freud sees adolescence as a time to restore the delicate balance between the ego and the id, and sees ________ and intellectualization as two defense mechanisms unique to the period.
asceticism
the phrase " identity crisis" is associatied with the theorist ______ _______ and is his fifth stage of development.
erik erikson
striving toward a state of identity means commiting to one lifestyle and repudiating (giving up) all the other possibilities, at least for the present.
repudiation
marcid's four aspects of identity formation
identity status
the stages of pubertal change occuring at times that are within the normal range of occurance.
normal range of development
the period of adolescence when growth is at its fastest.
maximum growth spurt
the process of physical and mental development due to physiology
maturation
binge eating and inappropiate compersatory methods to prevent weight gain.
bulimia nervosa
the reversion to the self- cetered thinking patterns of childhood and sometimes occurs in the teen years.
adolescent egocentrism
identity status is achieved through crises and commitment in four stages: identity confusion, identity forclosure, identity _______, and identity achievement .
moratorium
marcia believes that to attain a mature identity, a person must undergo several crises in choosing from life alternatives and come to a _____ in his/her choices.
commitment
james hill was the first to see that causations of adolescent changes are always embedded in the intricate interactions among _________ __________, and __________ forces.
biological, psychological, social
graber and brooks-gunn hold that the precursors and outcomes of a variety of transitions are one kind of ______ ________ ________.
transition-linked turning point
lerner characterized the adolescent transition as being distinguished by four traits: relative plasticity, historical embeddedness, diversity, and individual difference, and ________.
relationism
g.s. hall, the father of adolescent pychology saw child development parelleling the development of the human race, with adolescence being a time both of civilization and of storm and _______
stress
puberty is a relatively abrut and qualitatively different set of physical changes in boys and girls that usually occurs at the beginning of the________years.
teen
although there is rather a wide normal range of development as relates to the onset of puberty, early,or late maturing childern can be affected socially and________.
psychologically
_____maturing boys are often peer groups leaders.
early
one hundred years ago the average maturing girl was physcially much like the late maturing girl today. this phenomenon is called _____ _____.
secular trend
_____ _____ is a syndrome is self-starvation characterized, in part, by intense fear of becoming obese, disturbance of the body image, and significant weight loss.
anorexia nervosa
inexploring coginative development, we examine Piaget's four stages of cognative development: sensorimotor, preoperational,______ operational,and formal operational.
concrete
formal operational mean that a person can form ______ mental operations.
abstract
Elkind presents the concepts of aldolescent egocentrism which includes an ____ _____ and the personal fable.
imaginary audience
thinking skills can be seperated into convergent (coming together with a single correct answer) and _____(exploring the many possible answers to a questions).
divergent
David Feldman calims that some children are precocious (doing what others do, but a younger age), while other children are______ (having a qualitatively greater ability than thr rest of us).
prodigious
_____ ________ is sometimes typified by withdrawal from reality.
identity confusion
which of the following is part of the male reproductive system?

a. fimbrie
b. vas deferens
c. cevix
d. ova
vas deferens
what controls the sexual characteristics in both males and females?

a. pituitary gland
b. bartholin's glands
c. cowper's glands
d. epididymis
pitutary gland
what marks the onset of puberty?
no single event marks the onset of puberty
adolescents who are dependent and child like,who feel a growing dislike for their bodies, and who become more introverted and self rejecting because of it are likely to be.
late maturing females
the identity status in which numerous crises have been experienced and resolved and relatively permanents commitments have been made is called___.
a. identity moratoriam
b. identity achievement
c. foreclosed identity
d. confused identity
the decreasing age of the onset of puberty is referred to as
a. early physical maturation
b. early psychological
maturity
c. the evolutionary trend
d. the secualar trend
one of the traits by which lerner characterized the adolescent transition is
a. independance
b. eatinbg disorder
c. relative plasticity
d. negative body image
from the standpoint of adolescence, the most important of Erikson's eight stages if the ______stage.
a. identity
b. autonmy
c. intimacy
d. industry
what occurs during Piaget's formal operational stage?
concrete operational combine to become formal operations
one of the critisms of Piaget's theory of cognitve develpoment is that it
does not account for culture and gender influences
to think of oneself in heroic or mythical terms is known as
a. egocentrism
b. imaginary audience
c. the personal fable
d. invincibility