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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CONTRACTILITY
ABILITY TO SHORTEN THEN RETURN TO THEIR ORIGINAL LENGTH
DEPOLARIZATION
MOVEMENT OF IONS ACROSS THE MEMBRANE, ESPECIALY SODIUM
PACEMAKER CELLS
CERTAIN CELLS THAT POSSESS AUTOMATICITY
THREE PRIMARY ELECTROLYTES
Na+(SODIUM), Ca++(CALCIUM), K+(POTASSIUM)
Na++
PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN DEPOLARIZATION OF THE MYOCARDIUM
Ca+
PLAYS A MOJOR ROLE IN DEPOLARIZATION AND CONTRACTILITY, HYPERCALCEMIA=INCREASE CONTRACTILITY, HYPOCALCEMIA=DECREASED CONTRACTILITY&INCREASED ELECTRICAL IRRITABILITY
K+
PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN REPOLARIZATION, HYPERKALEMIA=DECREASED AUTOMATICITY AND CONDUCTION, HYPOKALEMIA=INCREASED IRRITABILITY
THREE CARDIAC MUSCLES
1.ATRIAL 2.VENTRICULAR 3.EXCITATORY&CONDUCTIVE FIBERS
INTERCALATED DISCS
CONNECT CARDIAC MUSCLE FIBERS AND CONDUCT ELECTRICAL IMPULSES 400 TIMES FASTER THAN THE STANDERD CELL MEMBRANE
PHASE 0
ACTION POTENTIAL, MYOCARDIAL CELL STIMULATED-MEMBRANE SUROUNDING CELL CHANGES-SODIUM RUSHES IN-NEGATIVE RESTING POTENTIAL DISAPEARS COMPLETELY
PHASE1
EARLY REPOLARIZATION BEGINS, SODIUM INFLUX STOPS-POTASIUM ESCAPES-INSIDE IS NEGATIVELY CHARGED AGAIN
PHASE 2
SLOW INFLUX OF CALCIUM THROUGH CALCIUM IONS-CALCIUM ACTIVATES MYOCARDIAL FIBER=CONTRACTIOM-THE ENTIRE MUSCLE MASS IS DEPOLARIZED(ALL OR NOTHING)
PHASE 3
RAPID REPOLARIZATION, K+ LEAVES INIDE-CELL IS MORE NEG.(Na INSIDE, K+ OUTSIDE)
PHASE 4
RESTING POTENTIAL, SODIUM PUMP MOVES Na+ OUT AND K+ OUT
SA NODE
PRIMARY PACEMAKER, 60-100 BPM
AV NODE
40-60 BPM
PURKINJE FIBERS
<40BPM
SINUS PACED HEART (SA NODE)
REPRESENTED BY PRESENCE OF "P WAVES", ALL NORMAL AND ALIKE IN MORPHOLOGY
JUNCTIONAL PACED HEART (AV NODE)
PRIMARY PACEMAKER IS AT AV JUNCTION, MAY SEE INERTED P AWAVES BEFORE OR AFTER QRS OR NOT AT ALL
PURKINGE PACED HEART (IDIOVENTRICULAR)
DRIVEN BY VENTRICLES, NO P WAVE, RATE WILL BE VINTRICULAR
NORMAL SINUS RYTHEM
SA NODE IS PACING THE HEART, P,QRS,T AT ALL SYNC
THREE TYPES OF LEADS
AUGUMENTED, PERICARDIAL, BIPOLAR
BIPOLAR LEADS(123)
1.L ARM-R ARM, 2.L LEG-R ARM, 3.L LEG-L ARM
- IMPULSES
RECORDED DOWN
+ IMPULSES
RECORDED UP
INFO FROM A LEAD=
HEART RATE, REGULARITY, TIME IT TAKES TO CONDUCT AN IMPULSE
ARTIFACT
DEFECTIONS FROM OUTSIDE ACTIVITY
EACH BOX ACROSS=
.04 SEC(SMALL), .20 SEC(LARGE), 1 SEC(5 LARGE)
EACH BOX UP=
2 LARGE BOXES= 1 MV
P
FIRST COMPONENT, POSITIVE ROUNDED WAVE BEFORE QRS COMPLEX, ATRIAL DEPOLARIZATION
PR INTERVAL
DISTANCE FROM BEGINING OF P WAVE TO BEGINING OF QRS COMPLEX
PR SEGMENT
DISTANCE FROM END OF P WAVE TO BEGINING OF QRS
Q
FIRST NEG. DEFLECTION AFTER P WAVE, NICROSIS, SIGNIFICANT IF 1MM WIDE OR ONE-THIRD QRS AMPLITUDE
R
FIRST POS. DEFLECTION AFTER P WAVE, IMPULSE TO BUNDLE BRANCHES
S
FIRST NEG. DEFLECTION AFTER R WAVE, IMPULSE TRAVELING THROUGHPURKINGE SYSTEM
ABERRANT CONDUCTION
SUPRAVENTRICULAR BEAT CONDUCTED THROUGH VENTRICALS THROUGH ADELAYED MANNER, QRS IS WIDER THAN .12 SEC.,
NORMAL QRS SHOULD BE
.04-.12 SEC., 1-3 BOXES
ST SEGMENT
DISTANCE FROM S WAVR TO BEGINING OF T WAVE, INITIAL PHASE OF VENTRICULAR DEPOLARIZATION
ST DEPRESSION
ISCHEMIA
ST ELEVATION
INJURY
QT INTERVAL
TOTAL DURATION OF VENTRICULAR DEPOLARIZATION, .33-.42 SEC., 8-11 BOXES
P-WAVE?
IS IT REG., IS THERE P FOR QRS, IS THERE QRS FOR P, IS P INFRONT OR BEHIND QRS, IS P NORMAL, DO THEY ALL LOOK ALIKE, ARE THEY ASSOCIATED WITH ECTOPIC BEATS
RATE?
what is exact rate, is atrial the same as ventricular rate, >100=TACHY, <60=BRADY
RYTHM
IS IT REG OR IRREG, IS THERE PATERN TO IRREG, ANY ECTOPIC BEETS(EARLY OR LATE?)
PR INTERVAL
ARE THEY ALL CONSTANT, WITH IN NORMAL RANGE, IF IT VARIES-IS THERE A PATERN
5 STEPT TO RECOGNIZE RYTHM
DETERMIN RATE, RYTHM, PRESENCE OF P WAVE, PR INTERVAL, QRS COMPLEX
RATE DETIRMINATION
6 SEC-COUNT R WAVES ON 6 SEC STRIP*10, TRIPLICAE-COUNT LARGE SQUARES BETWEEN 2 R'S~300, R-R-COUNT BIG SQUARE BETWEEN R-R~300
DYSRHYTHMIA
ANY DEVIATION FROM ANY NORMAL ELECTRICAL RHYTHM
ARRHYTHMIA
ABSENSE OF ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY
DYSRHYTHMIAS ORIGINATING FROM SA NODE
SINUS BRADY, SINUS TACH, SINUS DYSRHYTHMIA, SINUS ARREST
SINUS BRADYCARDIA
RATE <60, RHYTHM-REG., PACEMAKER-SA NODE, P-UP&NORMAL, P-R INTERVAL-.12-.20SEC.,QRS-.04-.12SEC.
SINUS TACHYCARDIA
RATE >100, RHYTHM-REG., PACEMAKER-SA NODE, P-UP&NORMAL, P-R INTERVAL-.12-.20SEC., QRS-.04-.12 SEC.
SINUS DYSRHYTHMIA
RATE 60-100(VARIES), RHYTHM-IRREGULAR, PACEMAKER-SA NODE, P-UP&NORMAL, P-RINTERVAL-.12-.20 SEC.,QRS-.04-.12 SEC.
SINUS ARREST
RATE NORMAL-SLOW, RHYTHM-IRREGULAR, P-UP&NORMAL, P-R INTERVAL-.12-.20 SEC., QRS- .04-.12 SEC.
DYSRHYTHMIAS ORIGINATING IN ATRIA
ATRIAL TAHCYCARDIA OR WANDERING PACEMAKER, MULTIFOCAL ATRIAL TACHYCARDIA, PREMATURE ATRIAL CONTRACTION, PSVT, ATRIAL FLUTTER, ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
ATRIAL TACHYCARDIA OR WANDERING PACEMAKER
RATE USUALY NORMAL, RHYTHN-SLIGHTLY IRREG., PACEMAKER-VARIES(SA, ATRIAL TISSUE, AV JUNCTION), P-ORGANIZED-DIFFERENT, P-R INTERVAL-VARIES, QRS-NORMAL OR +/-.12
PREMATURE ATRIAL CONTRACTIONS
RATE UNDERLYING RHYTHM, RHYTHM-USUALY REG. EXCEPT PAC, PACEMAKER-ECTOPIC FOCUS IN ATRIUM, P-R INTERVAL-USUALY NORMAL +/-.12, QRS-NORMAL OR WIDE
PSVT
RATE 150-250, RHYTHM-REG EXCEPT ONSET&TERMINATION, P-ATIRAL&SINUS DIFFER, P-R INTERVAL-USUALY NORMAL OR LESS, QRS-NORMAL .04-.12
ATRIAL FLUTTER
RATE 250-350, RHYTHM-ATRIAL REG/VENTRICAL-IRREG, PACEMAKER-IN ATRIA/OUTSIDE SA, P-SAW TOOTH, F-R INTERVAL-USUALY CONSTANT, QRS-NORMAL .04-.12
ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
RATE-350-750, RHYTHM-IRREG-IRREG, PACEMAKER-NUMEROUS FOCI IN ATRIA, P-NONE, P-R INTERVAL-NONE, QRS-NORMAL .04-.12