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77 Cards in this Set

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HEART
HOLLOW MUSCULAR ORGAN, WEIGHS LESS THAN ONE POUND, ABOUT THE SIZE OF A FIST, BEATS OVER 100,000 TIMES A DAY, PUMPS 7,000 L, OVER 60,000 MILES OF VESSELS
WHAT IS THE LOCATION OF THE HEART
2/3 LEFT OF MIDLINE, BETWEEN 2ND AND 6TH RIB, 5" LONG, 31/2" WIDE, 21/2" THICK
WHAT STRUCTERS ARE WITHIN THE MEDIASTINUM
HEART, VENA CAVA, AORTA, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS GLAND
HOW MUCH O2 IS USED BY MYOCARDIUM
AT REST MYOCARDIUM USED ABOUT 70% OF O2 DELIVERED BY CORONARY ARTERIES
HOW MUCH O2 DOES THE BRAIN USE
20-25%
HOW MUCH O2 DOES THE LIVER USE
20%
HOW MUCH O2 DOES THE KIDNEY USE
10%
HOW MUCH O2 DOES THE SKELETAL MUSCLES USE AT REST
27%
WHAT IS THE FIBROUS PERICARDIUM
BAG AROUND THE HEART, PREVENTS OVER DISTENTION OF THE HEART, PROTECTIVE MEMBRANE, ANCHORS HEART IN MEDIASTINUM, CONTAINS PAIN RECEPTORS AND MECHANORECEPTORS TO ELICIT REFLEX CHANGES IN BP AND HEART RATE
WHAT IS THE SEROUS PERICARDIUM
PARIETAL LAYER- LIES DIRECTLY BELOW AND IS FUSED TO FIBROUS PERICARDIUM, VISCERAL LAYER-LIES ONTOP OF AND IS FUSED TO EPICARDIUM
WHAT DOES PERICARDIAL FLUID DO
FILLS POTENTIAL SPACE, FLOWS BETWEEN TWO MEMBRANES, 25 ML OF FLUID, LUBRICATE TO REDUCE FRICTION
WHAT ARE THE THREE LAYERS OF THE HEART
EPICARDIUM-OUTER LAYER, MYOCARDIUM-CARDIAC MUSCLE, ENDOCARDIUM-INNER LAYER
DESCRIBE THE ATRIA
TWO SUPERIOR CHAMBERS, VERY THIN WALLED, R WALL IS 1/8 IN THICK, L WALL IS THICKER
WHAT IS THE PARTITION BETWEEN THE ATRIA
INTERATRIAL SEPTUM
DESCRIBE THE VENTRICLE
TWO INFERIOR CHAMBERS, WALL ON R IS 1/4 IN, L WALL IS 3 TIMES THICKER
WHAT IS THE PARTITION BETWEEN THE VENTRICLES
INTERVENTRICULAR SEPTUM
NAME THE ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES
TRICUSPID VALVE- RIGHT, BICUSPID/MITRAL VALVE- LEFT
HOW DOES AV VALVES WORK
VALVES OPEN DURING PRESSURE CHANGES, WHEN ATRIAL PRESSURE EXCEEDS VENTRICULAR PRESSURE, VALVES OPEN,
HOW MUCH BLOOD FLOWS TO VENTRICLE DURRING DIASTOLE
70%
WHAT ARE CHORDAE TENDINAE
TENDON LIKE FIBEROUS CHORDS, CONNECT TO POINTED END OF AV VALVES
WHAT ARE PAPILLARY MUSCLES
MUSCLES ATTACHED TO CHORDAE TENDINEA THAT PULL AV VALVES CLOSED
WHERE IS PULMONIC VALVE
BETWEEN R VENTRICLE AND PULMONARY CIRCULATION
WHERE IS AORTIC VALVE
BETWEEN L VENTRICLE AND SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION
WHEN DOES CORONARY CIRCULATION TAKE PLACE
DELIVERED DURING SYSTOLE, PERFUSSION TAKES PLACE DURING DIASTOLE, 200-250 ML OF BLOOD TO HEART PER MIN.
DEFINE SULCI
EXTERNAL GROVES THAT CONTAIN CORONARY VESSELS AND FAT TO PROTECT VESSELS
LEFT CORONARY ARTERY
ORIGINATES AS A BRANCH OFF ASCENDING AORTA, SUPPLIES 85% OF BLOOD TO MYOCARDIUM. CONSIST OF ANTERIOR INTERVENRICULAR BRANCH, AND CIRCUMFLEX BRANCH
RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY
ORIGINATES AS BRANCH OF ASCENDING AOTRTA, TAKES BLOOD TO VENTRICLES, R ATRIUM, CONDUCTION SYSTEM
WHAT ARE THE TWO CORONARY VEINS
GREAT CARDIAC VEIN, DRAINS ANTERIOR HEART, MIDDLE CARDIAC VEIN, DRAINS POSTERIOR HEART
DESCRIBE CORONARY SINUS
FOUND IN CORONARY SULCUS, COLLECTS BLOOD FROM GREAT CARDIAC VEIN AND MIDDLE CARDIAC VEIN, DUMPS BLOOD INTO R ATRIUM
WHERE AND WHAT DO LYMPHATIC VESSELS DO
VESSELS DRAIN FLUID INTO LYMPH NODES, LOCATED IN ANTERIOR MEDIASTINUM, FLUID EMPTIES INTO SUPERIOR VENACAVA, IMPORTANT FOR PROTECTING MYOCARDIUM FROM INJURY
ANASTOMOSES
AKA COLATERAL ARTERIES, COMPLEX JUNCTION IN SMALLER BRANCHES OF CORONARY ARTERIES, NONE FOUND BETWEEN MAJOR ARTERIES, PROVIDE ALTERNATE ROUT FOR BLOOD FLOW
HOW MUCH BLOOD FLOWS THROUGH COLLATERAL CIRCULATION
90% IF A MAJOR VESSSL IS OBSTRUCTED
HOW MUCH BLOOD FLOW IS NEEDED FOR HEART TO LIVE
10-15% OF NORMAL FLOW
WHAT ARE THE FOUR LAYERS OF VESSELS
TUNICA ADVENTIA- OUTER LAYER, TUNICA MEDIA- MIDDLE LAYER, TUNICA INTIMA- INNER LAYER, LUMEN- VESSEL CAVITY
WHAT IS DIAMETER OF VESSEL DUE TO
CONSTRICTION OR RELAXATION OF MEDIA LAYER, BETA 2 DIALATION, ALPHA 1 CONSTRICTION
ARTERIAL SYSTEM
ARTERIES- LARGE VESSELS, ARTERIOLS-DIRECT BLOOD TO ORGANS
CAPILLARIES
EXCHANGE OF GAS, FLUIDS, AND NUTRIENTS, A SINGLE CAPILLARY MAY BE ONLY .5 TO 1 MM LONG, AND .01 MM THICK, CAPILLARY SURFACE AREA IS LARGER THAN 100 FOOTBALL FIELDS
VENOUS SYSTEM
VENULES- RECIEVE OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM CAPILLARIES, VEINS- UNDER LITTLE PRESSURE, CAN CONSTRICT UNDER PRESSURE
ARTERIAL CIRCULATION
BLOOD MOVES DUE TO PRESSURE DIFFERENCES, ARTERY PRESSURE-100mmHg, ARTERIOL PRESSURE- 85mmHg, CAPILLARY PRESSURE- 35 mmHg
VENOUS CIRCULATION
BLOOD MOVES DUE TO MUSCLE ACTION, PRESSURE CHANGES, ONE WAY VALVES, VENULE PRESSURE- 15mmHg, VEINS TO VENA CAVA 6-2-1 mmHg
WHERE DOES R ATRIUM RECIEVE BLOOD FROM
SUPERIOR VENA CAVA, INFERIOR VENA CAVA, CORONARY SINUS
WHERE DOES LEFT ATRIUM RECIEVE BLOOD FROM
4 PULMONARY VEINS, 2 FROM R LUNG, 2 FROM L LUNG
HOW MUCH BLOOD IS PUSHED INTO VENTRICLE DURING DIASTOLE, AND SYSTOLE
70% DIASTOLE, 30% SYSTOLE
HOW MUCH BLOOD IS IN VENTRICLES
120-130 ML, 70 MLS IS EJECTED, 50-60 ML IS LEFT IN EACH
WHERE DOES THE RIGHT VENTRICLE PUSH BLOOD TO
PULMONARY CIRCULATION, AGAINST 15-30 mmHg
WHERE DOES LEFT VENTRICLE PUSH BLOOD TO
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION AGAINST 90-140 mmHg
WHAT IS DIASTOLE PHASE
RELAXATION PHASE, ATRIA AND VENTRICLES FILL, CORONARY ARTERIES FILL, PERFUSION OCCURS IN BODY
HOW LONG IS TOTAL CARDIAC CYCLE
.8 SEC, ATRIAL SYSTOLE-.1, ATRIAL DIASTOLE-.7, VENTRICULAR SYSTOLE-.3, VENTRICULAR DIASTOLE-.5, BOTH ARE IN DIASTOLE FOR .4 SEC
STROKE VOLUME
AMOUNT OF BLOOD EJECTED IN ONE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION, 70 ML
PRELOAD
AMOUNT OF BLOOD AVAILABLE TO FILL VENTRICLES
CONTRACTILITY
AMOUNT OF STRETCH IS DETERMINED BY PRELOAD, GREATER THE PREELOAD, GREATER THE CONTRACTION, GREATER THE STROKE VOLUME
AFTERLOAD
PRESSURE THE VENTRICLRES HAVE TO PUMP, ALSO KNOWN AS DIASTOLIC PRESSURE, SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE, PERIPHERAL VASCULAR RESISTANCE
CARDIAC OUTPUT
AMOUNT OF BLOOD PUMPED IN ONE MINUITE
BARORECEPTORS
STRETCH RECEPTORS LOCATED IN AORTIC ARCH AND CAROTID BODIES. MONITOR BP THROUGH STROKE VOLUME
ELACTRICAL ACTIVATION AND DEACTIVATION OF MUSCLE CELLS IS TERMED
DEPOLARIZATION, REPOLARIZATION
SODIUM
PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN MYOCARDIAL DEPOLARIZATION
CALCIUM
PLAYS A ROLE IN MYOCARDIAL DEPOLARIZATION, CONTRACTION
CALCIUM
HYPOCALCEMIA- DECREASED CONTRACTILITY, INCREASED ELECTRICAL IRRITABILITY, HYPERCALCEMIA- INCREASED CONTRACTILITY
POTASSIUM
PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN REPOLARIZATION, HYPOKALEMIA-INCREASED IRRITABILITY, HYPERKALEMIA- DECREASED AUTOMATICITY AND DECREASED CONDUCTION
INTERCALATED DISCS
SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES IN CARDIAC MUSCLE THAT HOLD FIBER TOGETHER, AID IN CONDUCTION OF ACTION POTENTIALS, CONDUCT ELECTRICAL IMPULSES 400 TIMES FASTER THAN NORMAL, ALLOW ATRIA/VENTRICULAR MUSCLE TO CONTRACT AS UNIT
SYNCYTIUM
COORDINATED CONTRACTION OF CARDIAC MUSCLE CELL
ATRIAL SYNCYTIUM
CONTRACT SUPERIOR TO INFERIOR, BLOOD MOVES FROM ATRIA TO VENTRICLES
VENTRICULAR SYNCYTIUM
CONTRACT INFERIOR TO SUPERIOR, PUSH BLOOD INTO PULMONARY ARTERIES AND AORTA
CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM
IMPULSES SPREAD THROUGH ATRIA, IMPULSE TRANSMITS QUICKLY TO APEX OF HEART, IMPULSE STIMULATES VENTRICLES TO CONTRACT
LIST ORDER OF CONDUCTION SYSTEM
SA NODE, AV NODE, BUNDLE OF HIS, BUNDLE BRANCHES, PURKINJE FIBERS
EXCITABILITY
CELL CAN RESPOND TO AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE
CONDUCTIVITY
CELL CAN PROPAGATE ELECTRIC IMPULSE FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER
CONTRACTILITY
SPECIALIZED MUSCLE TISSUE SO THEY CAN CONTRACT
AUTOMATICITY
SELF DEPOLARIZATIONWITHOUT AN IMPULSE FROM AN OUTSIDE SOURCE
SA NODE
PRIMARY PACEMAKER, LOCATED IN RIGHT ATRIUM, INFERIOR TO OPENING TO VENA CAVA
INTERNODAL PATHWAYS
CONNECTS SA TO AV NODES VIA ATRIAL MUSCLE MASS TO AV NODE
AV NODE
CONNECTED TO AV FIBERS, CONDUCTS IMPULSES FROM ATRIA TO VENTRICLES
BUNDLE OF HIS
TRANSMITS IMPULSE THROUGH INTERVINTRICULAR SEPTUM
BUNDLE BRANCHES
DELIVER IMPULSE TO APEX OF VENTRICLE
PERKINJE FIBERS
SPREAD IMPULSE ACROSS(UP)VENTRICLES
HOW FAST DOES CURRENT TRAVEL
SA TO AV 2' SEC, AT AV SLOWS TO 2" SEC, SPEEDS UP AT BUNDLE OF HIS, TRAVLES TO PURKINJE FIBERS AT 7' SEC
WHAT IS RATE OF SELF-EXCITATION
SA-60-100 BPM, AV-40-60 BPM, PURKINJE FIBERS-20-40 BPM