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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the oldest and most complex spinning process?
Wet spinning
What is the fiber manufactoring process?
It's 3 steps:
-Prep/dissolve chemicals
-spin fibers
-solidify
What is the least expensive direct spinning process?
Melt spinning
What is the newest spinning process with simple method?
Solvent Spinning
What is rayon also known as?
Artifical silk, wrinkled a lot
What was the first regenerated fiber?
Rayon (natural source is basis)
High wet modulus rayon (HWM) has a cellulose xanthate concentration of?
39-50%
What does HWM rayon use less of in spinning bath?
concentrated sulfuric acid, and sodium sulfate
What is the spinning method of rayon?
Wet spinning
How does rayon look under a microscope?
It has striations
What does the cross section of VR rayon look like?
It has serrated edges
How much % of rayon is cellulose?
100%
What is the chemical composition of Rayon like?
Cotton and flax
What are environmental effects of rayon, and how much can be recycled?
Cutting of trees, and about 99% can be recovered
What are non-woven fabrics made out of rayon?
industrial wipes, sanitary products, and bandages
What spinning process is used for lyocell?
Solvent spinning
What does the longitudinal structure of lyocell look like?
Tubular ||
What does the cross section of lyocell look like?
rounded O
What is the brand name of lyocell?
Tencel
What is lyocells celloustic compostion?
100%
What is the environmental impact of lyocell?
It uses less hazardous chemicals than rayon, but lyocell itself can't be recyled
Acetate is made by mixing wood pulp with?
glacial acetic acid
What does the cross section of acetate look like?
like petals/lobular
What does the longitudinal section of acetate look like?
striated like rayon
What type of fiber is acetate?
It's thermoplastic fiber
What is the environmental impact of acetate similar to?
rayon and lyocell
What is nylon like chemically?
It's a polyamide, with 85% of amide linkage. Similar to wool and silk
What is the environmental impact of nylon?
Can turn yellow, doesn't degrade quickly, uses melt spinning and doesn't leave residues
What are some trade names of nylon?
duponts cordura, supplex, microsupplex
What is polyester called in the US?
Dacron
What is the spinning process used for polyester?
Melt-spinning
What is the longitudinal and cross section like for polyester?
Long- smooth rod like
cross- can be made into any shape
What is polyester made of chemically?
Polyethylene terephthalate
What is olefin also called?
polypropylene
what is olefin sensitive to?
oil bourne stains
Olefin is made out of tyvek which is a protective wear, how much recylced polyethelene is used?
25%
what cleaning method isn't recommended for olefin?
dry cleaning
How can acrylic be spun?
dry or wet
dry creates dog bone cross
and wet creates lima bean cross
What are some traits of acrylic?
moth resistant, simliar properties to wool
what are some end uses of acrylic?
gaskets, seals, vehicle covers, sandbags
what are some trade names of acrylic?
acrilan and creslan
What is modacrylic resistant to?
it's inherently flame retardent, doesn't wrinkle, acids, alkalis, organic solvents, sunlight
what is the spinning process used for modacrylic?
it's dry spun
what does the cross section of modacrylic look like?
dog bone
how is modacrylic cared for?
washed or dry cleaned
what is the environmental impact of modacrylic?
it's resistant to degradtion
what are uses of modacrylic?
awnings, fake furs, wigs
What are elastomers?
polymers that can stretch 2x their length such as rubber, spandex and elastoester
what replaced spandex in most cases?
synthetic rubber
What is neoprene used for?
compressive thearapy like splints and braces
what was spandex introduced as?
lycra
what are both polyamides?
nylon and aramid
What are trade names of aramid?
nomex nylon and kevlar
what are uses of kevlar?
protective wear, cables, bulletproof vests
what are uses of nomex?
firefighteres apparel, race car driver suits
what fibers are wet spun?
acrylic, rayon, and spandex
what fibers are dry spun?
acetate, acrylic, modacrylic, and spandex
what fibers are melt spun?
nylon, olefin, polyester, and saran
what fiber is solvent spun?
lyocell
what are uses of acetate?
cigarette filters, drapes
what are uses of nylon?
workout gear, hunting gear, biking gear, tire cords, car interiors, parachutes
what are uses of polyester?
fishing line, disposable diapers, artiers, and veins