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46 Cards in this Set

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____: The building block for proteins containing a central carbon atom w’ a nitrogen atom and other atoms attached.
amino acids
_____: Generally refers to a decreased oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. This can be caused by many factors, such as iron deficiency or blood loss.
anemia
____: Study of disease in laboratory animals that duplicates human disease. This can be used to understand more about human disease.
animal model
______: Weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters) squared. A normal value is 18.5 to 24.9. A value of 25 or greater indicates a risk for body weight-related health disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, esp. when it is 30 or greater. 1 BMI unit equals 6-7 lbs.
body mass index (bmi):
_____: A condition characterized by uncontrolled growth of abnormal body cells.
cancer
________: A compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; most are known as sugars, starches, and fibers.
carbohydrate
_____: A disease characterized by the deposition of fatty material in the blood vessels that serve the heart, often called hardening of the arteries. These deposits restrict blood flow through the heart, which in turn can lead to heart damage and death. Also termed coronary heart disease (CHD), as the vessels of the heart are the primary site of disease. The term cardiovascular disease (CVD) is typically used, since in addition to the heart, the arteries that serve the rest of the body can experience the same deterioration.
cardiovascular disease
________: Individuals who have the condition in question, such as lung cancer, are compared w’ individuals who don’t have the condition.
case-control study
_____: A waxy liquid found in all body cells. It has a structure containing multiple chemical rings that are found only in foods that contain animal parts.
cholesterol
______: Long-standing, developing over time. When referring to disease, this term indicates that the disease progress, once developed, is slow and tends to remain; a good example is cardiovascular disease.
chronic
: A loss of functioning liver cells, which are replaced by nonfunctioning connective tissue. Any substance that poisons liver cells can lead to cirrhosis. The most common cause is chronic, excessive alcohol intake.
cirrhosis
: a group of dif’ types of atoms bonded together in definite proportion (see also molecule). Not all chemical compounds exist as molecules. Some compounds are made up of ions attracted to each other, such as Na+Cl- (table salt).
compound
: Participants in a control group who are not given the treatment being tested.
control group
: A disease characterized by high blood glucose, resulting from either insufficient or no release of the hormone insulin by the pancreas or the general inability of insulin to act on certain body cells, such as muscle cells. The two major forms are type 1 (requires daily insulin therapy) and type 2 (may or may not require insulin therapy).
diabetes
: The proportion of food substances eaten that can be broken down in the intestinal tract for absorption into the body.
digestibility
: An experiment in which the participants and researchers are unaware of the participant’s assignment (test or placebo) or the outcome of the study until it is completed. An independent third party holds the code and the data until the study is completed.
double-blind study
: A compound that speeds the rate of a chemical process, but is not altered by the process. Almost all enzymes are proteins (some are made of nucleic acid).
enzyme
: the study of how disease patterns vary btwn dif’ population groups, such as the cases of stomach cancer in Japan compared w’ that in Germany.
epidemiology
: in nutritional terms, a substance that, when left out of a diet, leads to signs of poor health. The body either can’t produce this nutrient or can’t produce it fast enough to meet its needs. Then, if added back to a diet before permanent damage occurs, the affected aspects of health are restored.
essential nutrient
: a test made to evaluate the validity of a hypothesis.
experiments
: major part of most lipids; composed of a chain of carbons flanked by hydrogen w’ an acid group ( -C-OH the C has O connected to it w’ two bonds) at one end and a methyl group (-CH3) at the other.
fatty acid
: substances found naturally in plant foods that are not digested by the processes that take place in the stomach or small intestine. These add bulk to feces.
dietary fiber
: a condition in which blood pressure remains persistently elevated. Obesity, inactivity, excess alcohol intake, and excess salt intake all can contribute to the problem.
hypertension
: an “educated guess” by a scientist to explain a phenomenon.
hypotheses
: any disease caused by an invasion of the body by microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses.
infectious disease
: any substance lacking carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure.
inorganic
the heat energy needed to raise the temp of 1000 grams (1 L) of water 1 degree Celsius; also written as Calories, w’ a capital C.
kilocalorie (kcal):
: a compound composed of much carbon and hydrogen, little oxygen, and sometimes other elements. Lipids dissolve in ether or benzene, but not water, and include fats, oils, and cholesterol.
lipid
: nutrients needed in much larger amounts such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins.
macronutrients
: chemical processes in the body that provide energy in useful forms and sustain vital activities.
metabolism
: are nutrients needed in much smaller amounts such as vitamins and minerals.
micronutrients
: elements used in the body to promote chemical reactions and to form body structures.
minerals
: chemical substance in food that contributes to health, many of which are essential parts of a diet. Nutrients nourish us by providing energy, materials for building body parts, and factors to regulate necessary chemical processes in the body.
nutrients
: a condition characterized by excess body fat, typically defined in clinical settings as body mass index (bmi) of 30 or more.
obesity
: any substance that contains carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms in the chemical structure.
organic
: decreased bone mass wherein no outward causes can be found. This bone loss is related to the effects of aging, poor diet, and hormonal effects of menopause in women.
osteoporosis
: a fake medicine used to disguise the roles of participants in an experiment; if fake surgery is performed, that is called a sham operation.
placebo
: Foods and body components made of amino acids; proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes other atoms, in a specific configuration. Proteins contain the forms of nitrogen most easily used by the human body.
protein
recommended intakes of nutrients that meet the needs of nearly all (97 to 98% healthy individuals of similar age and gender. These are established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences.
recommended dietary allowance (RDAs)
: a term used frequently when discussing diseases and factors contributing to their development. A risk factor is an aspect of our lives- such as heredity, lifestyle choices (e.g., smoking), or nutritional habits - that make us more likely to develop a disease.
risk factor
: a substance that other substances dissolve in.
solvent
: the loss of body function that results from a blood clot or other change in the brain that affects blood flow. This in turn causes the death of brain tissue. Also called a cerebrovascular accident.
stroke
: an explanation for a phenomenon that has numerous lines of evidence to support it.
theory
: the major form of lipid in the body and in food. It is composed of three fatty acids bonded to glycerol, an alcohol.
triglyceride
: compounds needed in very small amounts in the diet to help regulate and support chemical reactions in the body.
vitamins
: the universal solvent of life; chemically, H2O. The body is composed of about 60% water. Water (fluid) needs are about 8 cups per day; needs are greater if one exercises heavily.
water