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22 Cards in this Set

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gene
a unit of inheritance that usually is directly responsible for one trait of character. each individual has 2 genes for each trait, one from each parent.
allele
alternate forms of a gene. usually ther are two alleles for every gene, sometimes as manya three or four present in population.
homozygous
when two alleles are the same
heterozygouse
when two alleles are different.
dominant
a trait(allele) that is expressed irregardless fo teh second allele-capital letters.
homozygous dominant
both traits are AA
hetrozygous dominant
two different genes as Aa
test cross
an indicidual that has done the dominant trait expressed withn a recessive indicidual to determine if the individual is homozygous or dominant or heterozygous dominant.
hybrid
an indicidual who has one dominant and one recessive gene for a trait.
incomplete dominance
a trait where the phenotype fo a hybrid displays a blending of the two alleles.
phenotype
the physical expression of genes for the trait by an individual
genotype
the gene makeup of an organism. phenotype is the trait of an individual expresses while genotype is the two genes that cause that trait.
punnett square
probability diagram illistrating the possible offspringe of a mating male genes on top of columns and female traits on side of rows.
monohybrid cross
a cross involving only one trait.
dihybrid cross
a cross involving two traits
probability
ratios or percents
multiple alleles
three or more alleles for a gene as blood type as skin color
multifactorial traits
more then one pair of genes plus environment
incomplete dominance
one allele(gene) is not completely dominant over another resulting in a blending of traits
sex-linkage
allele(gene)is located on a sex chromosome and it will be more common in one sex. it is usually on the X chromosonme and more common in males than in females.barr bodies- tightly coiled Xchromosome in females-inactive X chromosome. Calico cats- usually on fmelas. yellow and black allesles on X cchromosome- Female has 2 X
DNA structure
double helix with sugar9deoxyribose), and phosphate and nitrogen bases(adenine, thymine, guaneine, and cytosine) pairing AT and GC.
karyotupe
the print of human chromosomes.