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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Why are adjuvants used?
1) increase mixability or ease of application, provides a better dispersal of active ingredients
2) reduces surface tension of liquids (spray solution)
3) increases compound penetration through plant cuticle, increases plant absorption of herbicide
What are some examples of herbicide adjuvants?
surfactants, crop oil concentrates, organo-silicones, N-surfactant blends, esterfide seed oils
Give the characteristics of surfactants.
1) most are non-ionic with 80-90% ai
2) conc range from 0.125-1.0% v/v or 1 pt/100 gal-4 pts/100 gal
3) reduce surface tension of spray droplet so that it cover more surface area; it also reduces tension from plant hairs and allow contact to cuticle directly
4) common surfactants include x-77, Induce, 80/20
Give the characteristis of crop oil concentrates.
Used when treating grasses
1j) nonphytotoxic petroleum based oils or refined vegetable oils with 15-20% emulsifying agent
2) generally use 1 qt/A
3) most common is Agridex
4) crop oils act by solubilizing the suticle, allowing herbicide penetration into the plant; can cause some leaf burn on non-target crop species
Give the characteristics of organo-silicones.
1) new generation surfactants, contain an organic-based silicone surfactant similar to silicone sprays for lubrication
2) biggest advantage is tremendous reduction in surface tension of spray solution, allows solution to flow through tthe stomatal cavity into the plant
3) no consistant results, high priced
How is adjuvants manufactured?
1) no defined producedure for many
2) considerable markup and high profit
3) research tedious with mixed results; highly influenced by plant species, environment, spray volume, product rates
4) go with proven performance
1 ha = _________ acres
2.47 acres
1 lb = _________ g
454 g
1 gal = ________ L = ________ mL = __________ qts = __________ pts = ___________ fl oz
3.785 L, 3785 ml, 4 qts, 8 pts, 128 fl oz
1 kg = _______ lb
2.2 lbs
1 fl oz = _________ ml
29.57 ml
1 mile = ________ ft = _________ km
5280 ft, 1.6 km
1 in = _______ cm
2.54 cm
1 oz = _________ g
28.37 g
How do you determine A/min?
A/min = Area covered (ft2)/ min elapsed
A/min = swath (ft) * speed (ft/min)/ 43,560 ft2
A/min = swath (ft) * speed (mph)/ 495
How do you calibrate spray boom (nozzle catch)?
GPM = GPA * nozzle spacing (in) * speed (mph)/ 5940 / 1 min
How do you calibrate for granular herbicide?
GPM = gall sprayed/ min elapsed
APM = Acre sprayed/ min elapsed
APT = tank vol/GPA
Prod/tank = APT*Prod per A
When applying herbicide to water (pond), how to find the lbs ai needed?
recomm ppm*acre-ft*2.7
When applying herbicide to water (pond), how to find the lbs product needed?
lbs ai/% ai per gallon
When applying herbicide to water (pond), how to find the gallons of product needed?
lbs ai/lbs ai per gallon
How do you determine a liquid dose?
gal of prod/A = lbs ai/A / lbs ai/gal
How do you determine a dry formulation?
lbs/A - % ai/A / % ai in formulation