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91 Cards in this Set

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Dose for serenoa repens
320 mg QD in 1-2 divided doses
what percentage of steroid should be in each serenoa repens dose?
80-90% beta-sitosterol
dose of pygeum africana?
75-200mg QD
what percentage of active ingredient should be in each pygeum dose?
14% triterpenes and 0.5% docosanol
what part of the pygeum africana plant is used?
bark
what is cucurbita pepo?
pumpkin
what part of the pumpkin plant is used?
seeds
what is the dose of pumpkin?
480mg a day in 3 divided doses
SE of pumpkin?
diuretic action may lead to hypotension and electrolyte imbalances
what is urtica dioica?
stinging nettle "urtica" = itchy
part of stinging nettle plant used for BPH?
root
active ingredients (2) in stinging nettle?
1. caffeic acid ester = chlorogenic acid

2. flavenoid = kaempferol
stinging nettle capsule dose
300 mg BID
how long does one need to use stinging nettle capsules for BPH?
6-9 weeks
dose of stinging nettle extract with saw palmetto?
80mg
stinging nettle drug interactions
diurteics
stinging nettle adverse effects?
hyponatremia
what is vaccinium macrocarpon?
cranberry
part of cranberry plant used?
berries
dose of cranberry for UTI?
8-16 oz of pure juice
is cranberry used for treatment or prevention of UTI?
prevention
active ingredients (2) in cranberry?
anthrocyanins and quercetin
adverse effects of cranberry TABLETS?
kidney stones
what is arctostaphylos uva-ursi?
bearberry
part of bearberry plant used?
leaves
use of bearberry?
UTI treatment
active ingredient in bearberry?
arbutin which turns into hydroquinone
does the urine need to be alkaline or acidic for arbutin to work (bearberry)?
alkaline
SE of bearberry?
N/V due to high tannin level
dose of bearberry?
cold water preparation: 400-800mg arbutin a day until resolution of symptoms or 12 weeks
drug interactions with bearberry?
1. corticosteroids
2. NSAIDS
3. diuretics
*may increase effects of all
what is vitex agnus castus?
chasteberry
part of chasteberry plant used?
dried, ripe berries
active ingredients in chasteberry?
agnuside 0.5% or aucubin 0.6%
MOA of chasteberry?
dopamine agonist - inhibits prolactin
dose of chasteberry extract
30-40mg each morning before breakfast during cycle
what is the plant name for black cohosh?
cimifuga racemosa
what part of the black cohosh plant is used?
rhizome and root
how long does it take to see results from black cohosh?
about 4 weeks
what is the active ingredient in black cohosh?
27-deoxyacetin
what other active ingredient is in black cohosh that may be the reason for its use in arthritis?
salicylic acid
black cohosh is considered a ___ like Tamoxifen
SERM
in which tissues is black cohosh an estrogenic agonist and which is it an estrogenic antagonist?
agonist - bone and liver

antagonist - breast and uterus
which estrogen receptor does black cohosh act as an agonist?
beta estrogen receptor
what is the black cohosh dose?
40mg of dried rhizome/root a day
how much of the active ingredient is in the black cohosh dose?
1 mg 27-deoxyacetin
how long should black cohosh be used for?
no longer than 6 months
SE with black cohosh?
liver toxicity
what is glycine max?
soy
what are the active ingredients in soy? (2)
1. fatty acids - omega 3
2. isoflavones - genisitin (fits into estrogen receptor)
what is trifolium pratense?
red clover
dose of red clover?
40-80mg of isoflavones
what is the order of recommended herbals for menopausal symptoms?
1. black cohosh
2. soy
3. red clover
what is angelica sinensis?
dong quai
what part of the dong quai plant is used?
roots
how effective is dong quai for menopause?
ineffective
what is discorea species?
wild yam
what part of wild yam is used?
roots
what are the dosage forms of wild yam?
oral and topical
active ingredient of wild yam?
diosgenin [converted to progesterone]
what is allium sativum?
garlic
what part of the garlic plant is used?
bulb
uses of garlic?
1. anti-atherogenic
2. lipid-lowering
3. antioxidant
inactive garlic ingredient?
alliin
what is the active garlic ingredient?
allicin
which is chemically unstable: alliin or allicin?
allicin
which has a sulfur compound: alliin or allicin?
both alliin and allicin
which is physiologically active: alliin or allicin?
allicin
which has an garlic odor: alliin or allicin?
allicin
how does one get allicin from alliin?
crush alliin
MOA of garlic?
1. inhibits HMG-coA reductase
2. inhibits squalene epoxidase
what happened in 1993 with the garlic formulation that resulted in it becoming less effective?
the company changed the formulation to a fast-release formula where only 10% of alliin was released [previously 40-50% of alliin was released]
what is aged garlic?
garlic that has been extracted for 20 months - it adds antioxidants to the unstable compound
what type of patient seems to benefit the most from aged garlic?
smokers
drug interactions with garlic?
1. ritonivir - GI toxicity
2. saquinavir - decreased effects
3. warfarin - increased effects
dose of garlic?
600-900mg a day with 10mg alliin
how long should one take garlic?
6-8 weeks
if a patient is undergoing surgery, when should they stop taking garlic?
72 hours to 1 week before surgery
what is the monascus purpureus?
red yeast rice
how is monascus purpureus synthesized?
extracted from premium rice with a water extract
what is the active ingredient in red yeast rice?
monacolin K
what is the MOA of red yeast rice?
inhibition of HMG-coA reductase
how does red yeast rice affect total cholesterol levels?
decreases
how does red yeast rice affect LDL levels?
decreases
how does red yeast rice affect HDL levels
no effect
dose of red yeast rice?
1.2 g per day
DI with red yeast rice? (2)
1. statins
2. grapefruit juice
what is the latin name for oat?
avena sativa (Think "Aveeno" products and taking an oat bath for poison ivy symptom relief)
uses for oat?
1. decrease cholesterol
2. DM
3. diarrhea
4. decrease UA levels
5. dry itchy skin [topically]
active ingredient in avena sativa?
beta-glucans; increases viscosity of food in the small intestine and delays absorption to help decrease post-prandial insulin levels
what is the dose of beta-glucans in oat products that helps reduce cholesterol levels?
3-10 g of beta glucans a day to reduce cholesterol by 4-14 mg/dL