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346 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cynara scolymus = ?
what part of the artichoke plant is used medicinally?
what is the modern medicinal use of artichoke (2)?
1. digestive complaints
2. mild to moderate hyperlipidemia
key compound in artichoke?
caffeoylquinic acids = cynarin
what is the proposed MOA of artichoke to lower cholesterol levels?
indirect inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase
T/F: artichoke should be dosed once daily
false - it should be dosed in 2-3 divided doses. No studies have shown a benefit with once daily dosing
what is the dose of artichoke?
1800-1920 mg/d in 2-3 divided doses
the isolated constituent of artichoke ____, has also been used to lower cholesterol in doses of ___ to ___ mg/d
isolate constituent: cynarin
doses of 60 - 1500 mg/d
Does artichoke have GRAS status?
how long must one treat with artichoke to see effects?
4-6 weeks
what are the significant drug interactions seen with artichoke?
none reported
crataegus species = ?
which parts of the hawthorn plant are used medicinally?
leaves and flowers
what is the modern medicinal use for hawthorn?
Heart failure
the flowers and leaves of hawthorn are very high in which flavenoid?
what are the 3 important flavenoids in hawthorn?
1. vitexin - leaves and flowers
2. rutin
3. hyperoside
International standardization recommends __ to __% flavenoids of hawthorn, typically calculated as ____ (which flavenoid)?
0.6% - 1.5%
typically calculated as hyperoside
besides the flavenoids, what is another key compound in hawthorn?
what is the purpose of the proanthocyanidins in hawthorn?
color the flowers and fruits in the blue/red/purple spectrum
are the proanthocyanidins in hawthorn water- or oil-soluble?
the hawthorn preparations are based on ____ extracts
Which NYHA Functional Classification is hawthorn shown to be useful in?
Class II
can hawthorn be used safely with diuretics and laxatives?
what potential does hawthorn have to cause arrhythmias?
T/F: hawthorn is safe enough for patients with HF to self treat
false - they need to be treated by a licensed physician
which prescription medication is the MOA of hawthorn similar to?
MOA of hawthorn:
1. increasing the force of contraction and lengthening the ___ period
2. increasing coronary blood flow and cardiac output and reducing ____ consumption
3. increased membrane permeability for ___ and ___ inhibition
4. increase in c___ to increase coronary blood flow, vasodilation and positive inotropic effects
increasing the force of contraction and lengthening the refractory period

2. increasing coronary blood flow and cardiac output and reducing oxygen consumption

3. increased membrane permeability for calcium and phosphodiesterase inhibition

4. increase in cAMP to increase coronary blood flow, vasodilation and positive inotropic effects
what is the recommended dose of HAWTHORN extract?
hawthorn extracts should be standardized to ___% of oligomeric procyanidines
how long does one need to use hawthorn to see a benefit?
4-6 weeks
can hawthorn be used in pregnancy?
aesculus hippocastanum = ?
horse (ippos) chestnut (castanon)
what are the two main uses for horse chestnut?
1. chronic venous insufficiency
2. anti-edemic
what are the 2 key compounds in horse chestnut?
1. terpenoid - escin
2. coumarin derivatives - aesculin
horse chestnut products are made from the ___
horse chestnut seed extract products are normally standardized to contain __% to __% triterpene glycosides calculated as ___ content
16-20% triterpene glycosides calculated as escin content
what is the normal dose of HORSE CHESTNUT seed extract?
300-900 mg of a 16% extract calculated as ESCIN given in 2-3 doses
T/F: patients do not need any other medication or medical devices when taking horse chestnut seed extract for venous insufficiency
false - they must continue to wear supportive elastic stockings
does the FDA consider horse chestnut seed extract a safe herb?
no - poisonings seen in children
what is the toxicity of horse chestnut attributed to?
glycoside aesculin - causes dilation of pupils, diarrhea, vomiting, paralysis
do not use horse chestnut with other herbs that may affect ___ ___ because of a theoretical increase in bleeding
platelet aggregation
hypericum perforatum = ?
st. johns wort
what part of the st. john's wort plant is used medicinally?
flowering parts -stems, leaves and flowers
when rubbed between the fingers, the flowers of st. johns wort release ___ which is a ___ color
hypericin is a red color
why is st. john's wort used medicinally?
mild to moderate depression as an antidepressant
st johns wort preparations are standardized to which 3 properties?
1. flavenoids (12%)
2. hypericin (0.3%)
3. hyperforin (3%)
how does st. john's wort affect the Cmax and AUC for most medications like: digoxin, amitriptyline, indinavir, cyclosporin, estrogens and warfarin?
decreases Cmax and AUC
what is the proposed MOA of St. Johns Wort?
increase in P-glycoprotein expression and CYP3A4 expression
which content of st. johns wort is responsible for the drug interactions?
T/F: st. john's wort is still physiologically active without hyperforin
which content of st. johns wort may be benefically used TOPICALLY for skin cancer?
how effective is SJW for HIV when given orally? When used IV?
no efficacy shown when used either orally or IV
which content of SJW was studied for its role as an anti-retroviral agent for HIV?
what is the SE seen if SJW is overdosed?
dose of SJW?
300mg TID capsules and tablets standardized to 0.3% hypericin, and less than 3% hyperforin
T/F: SJW should only be given TID
false - it can be given QD to increase compliance
Can SJW be given concurrently with other antidepressants?
what is a consequence that may be seen when using SJW with other SSRIs?
serotonin syndrome
if a patient is undergoing surgery, how many days in advance should they stop taking SJW?
5 days before surgery
in what dosages is phototoxicity seen with SJW?
>900 mg/d
why would a patient choose to take SJW vs. a synthetic SSRI or TCA?
less side effects and lower cost
ginkgo biloba = ?
gingko biloba
ginkgo biloba extracts are made from what part of the plant?
dried, green whole leaves
gingko trees are dioecious. what is the significance of this feature?
separate male and female trees. only female trees produce fruit
which herbal plant is considered a living fossil and why?
ginkgo biloba - resistant to harmful insects, microorganisms, environmental toxins and radiation
what are the 3 key compounds of gingko biloba?
1. terpene lactones
2. flavenoids
3. ginkgolic acids
what are the 4 terpene lactones found in gingko biloba?
ginkgolides A, B, C, J
which key component of gingko is responsible for the allergic responses?
gingkolic acids - extracts should be free of them
present use of gingko biloba in medicine?
1. delay of age-related dementia
2. inhibit platelet-activating factor
3. improve blood flow to the brain, sharpen mental focus, diabetes-related circulatory disorders and vertigo
the chemical composition of gingko biloba should be ___% flavenoids and ___% terpenoides. It should be free of ___ ___ due to its ability to cause allergic reactions
24% flavenoids
6% terpenoids (ginkgolides)
free of ginkgolic acids to avoid allergic reactions
which intrinsic vasodilator does gingko biloba release that may increase blood flow and oxygen to the brain?
nitric oxide
gingko biloba has also been shown in some studies to be useful in which 2 disease states? (besides dementia)
1. intermittent claudication
2. tinnitus and hearing loss
what is the recommended dosage of ginkgo biloba extract?
40mg TID (120mg/d)
T/F: it is ok to recommend using ginkgo QD instead of TID
ginkgo biloba extract is sometimes referred to as ___ or ___
somewhere on the ginkgo biloba label, it should read, "__:__ concentrate" and "___-free"
50:1 concentrate - refers to the 50 pounds of leaves needed to produce 1 pound of extract

what are 4 significant drug interactions seen with ginkgo?
1. acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)

2. coumadin

3. rofecoxib (Vioxx)

4. trazodone (deseryl)

what is hyphema and with which herbal product is it seen as an adverse effect that is reversible upon d/c?
hyphema = bleeding in the eye. seen with ginkgo biloba
how long before undergoing surgery should patients stop taking ginkgo?
at least 36 hours
piper methysticum = ?
kava kava
what part of the kava kava plant is used medicinally?
active ingredient in kava kava?
is kava kava still available on the market
what is kava kava used for?
1. treat anxiety disorders
2. stress
3. insomnia
4. restlessness
what is the proposed MOA of kava kava?
alpha pyrones bind to GABA receptors similarly to benzos which leads to sedation
can kava kava be taken concurrently with BZDs?
prolonged use of kava kava can result in which skin conditions?
rash and discolored skin
the FDA is advising consumers not to take kava kava - even in small doses - due to the risk of developing severe ___ injury
severe liver injury
T/F: all forms of kava kava plants are hepatotoxic
false - mostly just the wild and false kava kava plants and some manufacturers do not discriminate in which plant they use
traditionally, only which part of the kava kava plant should be used medicinally? which part of the plant may contain harmful substances?
traditionally, the roots are used medicinally. the stems may contain harmful substances
what is the toxic substance found in kava kava stems?
dose of kava kava?
200mg/d for extracts with about 30-80% kavalactones
how many mg of kavalactones are desired per dose of kava kava?
patients should avoid doses of >___ mg kava kava
valeriana officinalis = ?
what part of the valarian plant is used medicinally?
medicinal uses for valerian?
1. insomnia
2. restlessness
3. nervous tension
what is the key constituent in valerian?
valepotriates, the key constituent in valerian, is (stable/unstable) and thermolabile. it decomposes under (acid/alkaline/both) conditions
valepotriates are unstable and thermolabile under both acidic and alkaline conditions
what is the characteristic odor of valerian?
smells like old gym socks due to isovaleric acid
there are a few different species of valerian. which constituent is unique to valernia officinalis?
valerenic acid - used an as analytical marker
proposed MOA of valerian?
lignans from valerian bind to A1 (adenosine) receptors to induce slumber
how long before bedtime should valerian be dosed?
30-60 minutes
what is the anti-anxiety dose of valerian? what is the sleep dose of valerian?
anxiety: 100-200 mg
sleep: 400-600mg
does valerian have GRAS status?
theoretically, which medications should not be used with valerian due to possible interactions
1. BZD
2. CNS depressants
humulus lupulus = ?
what is hops used for?
restlessness and sleep disturbances
which part of the hops plant is used medicinally?
female flowers - hop strobiles
hops strobiles contain 2 bitter principles: ___ and ____
1. humulone
2. lupulone
which herb may be associated with an antibiotic effect and can help with diarrhea?
which herb may have estrogenic effects?
what is the dose of hops?
0.5g as an infusion 2-4 times a day
passiflora incarnata = ?
passion flower
what are the medicinal use of passion flower (3)?
1. restlessness
2. sleep disturbances
3. generalized anxiety disorder
what are the active compounds in passion flower?
dose of passion flower?
0.5 - 2g of the drug as an infusion 3-4 times a day
lycopene is a carotenoid with no vitamin ___ activity
vitamin A
lycopene may be used to prevent ____
dose of lycopene?
how can lycopene affect established prostate cancer?
may worsen it
xanthophylls = ?
lutein is usually used to prevent which condition?
macular degeneration and prevent cataracts
how does beta carotene affect lycophene? lutein?
increases lycopene, decreases AUC of lutein
dose of lutein?
10mg/d x 12 months
camellia sinensis = ?
green tea
dose of green tea recommended (w/caffeine)
what pregnancy category is green tea?
category C
which antioxidant regulates the body's circadian rhythm?
how dose melatonin regulate the circadian rhythm?
increases GABA binding in the brain
what is melatonin usually used for? how is it taken?
jet lag; when traveling east, take 2 mg the first night and then for 3-4 days take 0.5mg
can melatonin be used in pregnancy?
no - it is CI
which antioxidant induces apoptosis?
how do SSRIs affect melatonin?
increase both endogenous and exogenous melatonin
what is the antioxidant that is a cofactor for DNA, RNA and protein synthesis?
dose of zinc?
zinc should not be administered intra____
morinda citrifolia = ?
noni contains a significant amount of ___+
garcinia mangostana = ?
what are the 6 herbs used for weight loss?
1. caffeine
2. ephedra
3. guarana
4. mate
5. spirulina
6. hoodia
dose of caffeine for weight loss
200 mg TID
how much caffeine is in a regular coca-cola? how much in a 8 oz black coffee?
1. coca cola = 34mg
2. black coffee = 135 mg
which part of the ephedra plant is used for manufacturing products?
stem and leaf
another name for ephedra?
ma huang
dose of ephedra for weight loss?
15-20mg TID
paullinia cupana = ?
which part of the guarana plant contains the active ingredient?
spirulina comes from what plant?
blue-green algae; not effective in weight loss
how does hoodia cause weight loss?
decreases appetite
vitamin B1 = ?
vitamin B2 = ?
vitamin B3 = ?
what vitamin deficiency can result in pellagra?
niacin (vitamin B3)

Pellagra - dermatitis, diarrhea and dementia
vitamin B3 can be toxic to the ___ at high doses
which water-soluble vitamin can cause flushing?
niacin (vitamin B3)
vitamin B5 = ?
pantothenic acid
vitamin B6 = ?
vitamin B7 = ?
vitamin B9 = ?
deficiency in folate leads to what disease state?
megaloblastic anemia
RDA for folate for men and women?
400 mcg/d
vitamin B12 = ?
deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to what disease state?
pernicious anemia
RDA of vitamin B12 for men and women?
2.4 mcg/d
how is cyanocobalamine usually administered?
vitamin C = ?
ascorbic acid
dose of vitamin C for common colds?
how does vitamin C affect warfarin levels?
can decrease warfarin response
the retinoids are which class of vitamins?
vitamin A
warfarin + vitamin A can lead to what AE?
increase risk of bleeding
vitamin D = ?
which vitamin is used to help treat Fanconi syndrome?
vitamin D; ergocalciferol
vitamin E = ?
vitamin K = ?
which amino acid is converted to nitric oxide by nitric oxide?
matricaria recutita = ?
proposed MOA of chamomile for GI disoders?
inhibits histamine release
dose of chamomile?
400-1600mg/d in divided doses
glycyrrhiza glabra = ?
key compound in licorice?
glycyrrhizic acid
main use of licorice in GI?
canker sores, ASA-induced stomach ulcers, PUD
MOA of licorice for GI disorders?
increases mucous production and increases blood supply to the stomach
licorice can cause (a decrease/an increase) in K+ and (a decrease/an increase) in Na+
decrease in K+

increase in Na+
use of licorice should be limited to how many weeks?
4-6 weeks
mentha x piperita = ?
peppermint oil
key compound in peppermint oil?
MOA of peppermint oil for GI disorders
relaxes GI smooth muscle by decreasing Ca2+ influx
there is Grade B evidence for the use of peppermint oil in which GI disorders?
IBS and dyspepsia
what product used for GI disorders is a probiotic?
lactobacillus acidophilus
zingiber officinale = ?
what are the key compounds in ginger?
ginger oils and gingerols
main GI uses for ginger?
chemotherapy induced nausea, post-op nausea, motion sickness and morning sickness
general dose of ginger?
1-4g in divided doses
key compound in aloe?
aloe has grade A evidence for its use for which GI disorder?
what is the maximum length of time a patient can use aloe for constipation?
7 days
vaccinium myrtillus = ?
active compound in bilberry?
bilberry is used for which GI disorders?
1. diarrhea
which herbal supplement product can be used for Crohn's Disease?
DHEA; dehydroepiandrosterone
MOA of DHEA for Crohn's Disease?
inhibits secretion of IL-6 and IL-12 (pro-inflammatory cytokines)
vaccinium macrocarpon = ?
MOA of cranberry for GI disorders?
inhibit adhesion of H. pylori to gastric mucosa
a patient with a h/o ___ should not receive cranberry tablets for H. pylori infection
kidney stones
linum usitatissimum = ?
what is flaxseed used for (GI-related)
as a laxative
why does flaxseed need to be taken with plenty of water when used as a laxative?
to prevent gastric obstruction
silybum marianum = ?
milk thistle
MOA of milk thistle for GI disorders
regulates TNF, nitric oxide and IL-6. it increases lymphocyte proliferation, interferon gamma, IL-4 and IL-6
milk thistle is used for disorders of what GI organs?
liver and gallbladder
key compound in milk thistle?
eucalyptus globulus = ?
which part of the eucalyptus plant is used medicinally?
leaves' oils
what are the modern medical uses for eucalyptus?
adjuvant treatment of bronchitis. Symptomatic treatment of URI
what is the volatile oil of eucalytpus called?
how much of the eucalyptol oil should a eucalyptus leaf contain?
about 70-85%
can eucalyptus be used internally? why or why not?
no - it may cause inflammation of the GI tract or gallbladder
in which patient population should eucalytpus oil not be applied to faces?
babies and very young children
mentha x piperita = ?
which part of the peppermint plant is used medicinally?
the fresh overground parts - steam distillation reveals the oil
what are the ways that peppermint oil can be used?
1. orally
2. topically
3. as an inhalant
why is peppermint used medicinally?
coughs and common cold - external use only

HA, myalgias - topically
what are the 3 principle components of peppermint oil?
1. menthol
2. menthone
3. menthyl
which of the 3 principle components of peppermint oil is the most abundant?
menthol (30%)
why should peppermint oil not be applied to the faces of children?
it has been known to cause apnea
menthol (peppermint oil) has been shown to cause ___ in newborn babies
cinnamomum camphora = ?
is camphor highly lipo- or hydrophilic?
what is the form of camphor that is used medicinally?
white crystalline powder
what are the 3 indications for the use of camphor?
1. cough
2. pain
3. pruritis
preparations of camphor for cough are used ___ and are in concentrations of less than __%
topical antitussive with concentrations less than 11%
camphor is FDA-approved for ___ (dosage form) use as an analgesic and anesthetic in concentrations of ___% to ___%
topical use in concentrations of 3% to 11%
camphor is FDA-approved for ___ (dosage form) use as an antipruritic agent in concentrations of __% to __%
topical use in concentrations of 3% to 11%
what are the ingredients of Vick's VaporRub?
1. 4.8% camphor (cough suppressant and topical analgesic)

2. 2.6% menthol (cough suppressant and topical analgesic)

3. 1.2% eucalyptus oil (Cough suppressant)
why should camphor not be used orally?
it can cause significant toxicity within 5-90 minutes of ingestion
what are some symptoms of camphor toxicity?
1. burning of the mouth

2. visual symptoms such as mydriasis and darkening of vision

3. seizures - may be the first sign of toxicity
can Vick's VaporRub be heated in the microwave?
No! it may cause severe burns and eye injuries
sambucus nigra = ?
which part of the elderberry plant is used?
flowers and berries
what is elderberry used medicinally for?
orally for sinusitis, cold, influenza and bronchitis
what is the key flavonoglycoside is elderberry?
patients with which types of diseases need to avoid using elderberry?
autoimmune diseases like MS, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis
thymus vulgaris = ?
thymus zygis = ?
what part of the thyme plant is used medicinally?
flowers and leaves
what are the 2 key compounds in thyme?
1. carvacrol
2. thymol
which key compound of thyme is more abundant?
thymol 30-70%
what is thyme used medicinally for orally?
1. bronchitis (thymol)
2. pertussis
3. sore throat
4. counterirritant and antiseptic in mouthwash (oil)
althaea officinalis = ?
marshmellow root
what are the key compounds in marshmellow?
mucilage polysaccharides
marshmallow contains rich stores of various vitamins and minerals such as ___ and ___
vitamin A and C
what is marshmellow used for medicinally?
1. dry cough
2. irritation of the oral, pharyngeal or gastric mucosa
what is the specific way to prepare marshmellow?
cold maceration
for which type of herbs is cold maceration recommended for?
herbs with high mucilage content to soften the cellular structure
what is a significant drawback of preparing herbs via cold maceration?
hygenic problems; may contain germs
which herbs used for cough/cold have GRAS status
1. marshmellow
2. elderflower
why should marshmellow herb not be taken with other medications?
it may delay the absorption of other drugs when taken at the same time
harpagophytum procumbens = ?
devil's claw
what part of the devil's claw plant is used medicinally?
what are the medicinal uses of devil's claw?
1. rheumatic conditions
2. arthritic conditions
3. low back pain
what are the 2 key compounds of devil's claw?
1. harpagoside
2. harpagid
MOA of devil's claw?
inhibit COX-2 (NOT COX-1) and nitric oxide synthetase (modulators of inflammation)
dose of devil's claw?
oral; 2400mg/d with 60 mg/d of harpagoside
can devil's claw be used in pregnancy?
no! may have oxytocic effects
what are the CI to using devil's claw?
gastric and duodenal ulcers and gallstones
what is the most common SE of devil's claw?
salix species = ?
willow bark
key compounds of willow bark?
salicin; salicylic acid
use of willow bark?
1. relief of low back pain

2. symptomatic relief of mild osteoarthritic and rheumatic complaints
dose of willow bark?
120 - 240 mg of an aqueous extract
with which other medications should willow bark not be used with?
those with anti-platelet and anti-coagulant effects
boswellia serrata = ?
what part of the boswellia plant is used medicinally?
key compounds in boswellia?
boswellic acids (alpha and beta)
medical uses of boswellia?
1. osteoarthritis
2. rheumatoid arthritis
dose of boswellia used for osteoarthritis?
boswellia extract 333mg TID
uncaria tomentosa = ?
cat's claw
uncaria guianesis = ?
cat's claw
which parts of the cat's claw plant is used medicinally?
1. roots
2. stem bark
key compounds in cat's claw?
oxindole alkaloids

1. tomentosa - tetracyclic
2. guianesis - pentacyclic
uncaria (tomentosa/guianesis) is used for OA and uncaria (tomentosa/guianesis) is used for RA
OA = guianesis

RA = tomentosa
uncaria (tomentosa/guianesis) is freeze dried
freeze dried = guianesis
what is the dose of uncaria guianesis used for OA?
100mg QD
what is the dose of uncaria tomentosa used for RA?
60mg QD free of tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids
how does cat's claw affect BP?
lowers blood pressure
how does cat's claw affect the immune system?
stimulates it
capsicum annum = ?
cayenne pepper
How is cayenne pepper used medically?
EXTERNALLY for treatment of painful muscle spasms in the shoulder, arm and spine

arthritis, rheumatism
what are the key compounds in cayenne pepper?
most topical creams for pain contain ___% to ___% capsaicin concentrations
0.025% to 0.075%
can capsaicin cream be used in pregnant women?
yes - when used topically
chondroitin sulfates are similar to which synthetic medication?
what is chondroitin normally used to treat?
1. TMJ
2. OA of the lower back
what is the supposed MOA of chondroitin?
enhances endogenous synthesis and prevents enzymatic degredation of joint glycosamnioglycans
after how long are significant changes in joint mobility seen when using chondroitin?
minimum of 1-2 months
concommitant use of chondroitin with ___ results in a significant decrease in the use of ___
for OA, what is the typical dose of chondroitin sulfate?
200-400mg BID to TID or 1000-1200 QD
what is the main supplement-drug interaction with chondroitin?
warfarin (increase in bleeding)
What are the 4 herbs that are considered immunostimulants/adaptogens
1. echinacea
2. goldenseal
3. ginseng
4. eleutherococcus
which echinacea plant (latin name) is the most common?
echinacea purpurea
which part of the echinacea purpurea plant is used medicinally?
aerial parts and roots
which major group of compound is absent in echinacea pallida?
which echinacea plants have the most isobutylamides?
1. E. purpurea
2. E. angustifolia
what is the MOA of the isobutylamides in echinacea?
1. stimulate phagocytosis
2. COX-2 inhibitor
which compound in echinacea contributes to it's immunomodulating effects?
there are caffeic acid derivatives in echinacea as well. Which caffeic acid is NOT found in E. purpurea?
there are caffeic acid derivatives in echinacea as well. Which caffeic acid is found in significant amounts in E. purpurea ONLY?
cichoric acid
Has echinacea shown more efficacy for prevention or treatment of the common cold?
patients with which type of dysfunction should not use echinacea?
those with problems with their immune system
What is the optimal dosage of echinacea?
there is none
when should a pharmacist recommend echinacea be taken?
as soon as signs and symptoms of a cold begins
what is the maximum amount of time that echinacea should be used for treatment of the common cold?
8 days
what is the maximum amount of time that echinacea should be used for prevention of colds?
8 weeks
what is the consequence of using echinacea for an excecssive amount of time?
decreased resistance to cold viruses
does echinacea stimulate or depress the immune system?
hydrastis canadensis = ?
what is goldenseal used for?
which parts of the goldenseal plant is used medicinally?
dried root and rhizome
what are the key compounds in goldenseal?
isoquinoline alkaloids

1. hydrastine
2. berberine
there is primary evidence that goldenseal may stimulate which immunoglobulin antibody production?
what is the typical dosage of goldenseal?
why should goldenseal not be used in pregnancy?
the compound berberine has been shown to cause uterine contractions
what is an adaptogen?
something that fights stress
what are the 2 important adaptogen herbs?
1. ginseng
2. eleuthercoccus
what are the 2 types of ginseng?
1. asian ginseng
2. north american ginseng
panax ginseng = ?
asian ginseng
panax quinquefolius = ?
north american ginseng
what is the medicinal part of the ginseng plant used?
what are the key compounds in ginseng? (generally)
is ginseng a stimulant or a depressant?
ginseng extracts are not recommended for continuous use beyond ___ months without discontinuing for ___ month
3 months, 1 month
with which dosage is ginseng abuse syndrome seen?
>15 g
what is the normal dose of ginseng?
200-600mg of ginseng extract standardized to >0.5% ginsenosides
eleutherococcus senticosus = ?
which part of the eleutherococcus plant is used?
what is the main compound in eleutherococcus?
eleutherococcus is also known as ____ ginseng
Which antioxidant was once used as an abortificant and should not be used in pregnant women?
What are some uses of mangosteen?
antioxidant - intestinal health, UTI, TB
What is the interaction between mangosteen and SSRIs?
increase in SSRI effects due to serotonin blockade
How is mangosteen commonly used?
as a juice in fruit or jams
What is a nootropic drug?
One that may improve dementia
What is an example of a nootropic herb?
gingko biloba - help to treat dementia
Which severities of dementia should gingko biloba be used in?
all forms: severe, mild and moderate
Which herbal supplement antagonizes platelet-activating factor?
gingko biloba