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### 20 Cards in this Set

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 What is fractional saturation? The proportion of total sites filled. Dalton's Law Total pressure of gas mixture is sum of partial pressures Henry's Law Concentration of gas in solution proportional to partial pressure What are the pressure units? 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 101 kPa K sub D or equilibrium constant/dissociation constant equation = [L] [P]/ [PL] where P is protein, L is ligand, and Ptotal = P + PL. Binding is "tight" when affinity is high, KD is low. fractional saturation equation Θ = [L] / [L]+KD Sites are half saturated (Θ=0.5) when [L]=KD Does oxygen bind to heme embedded in protein reversibly? Yes. P50 is .... is PO2 where protein in 50% saturated (=KD) What happens when Fe(II) is oxidized to Fe(III)? O2 binding is abolished. What is cooperative binding? When multiple, interacting sites, whose affinity changes as more sites have O2 bound. An example of "allostery." What stabilizes the R state of Hb? O2 binding. R has a higher affinity for O2. What is the Hill equation? For a protein P having n sites that bind ligand L: Θ = [L]n / ([L]n + Kd ) Log of equation = Log (Θ/ 1- Θ) = n log [L] – log Kd How does pH affect O2 affinity for Hb? O2 affinity of Hb declines with pH (Bohr effect). Example: acidosis in exercising muscles induces O2 release (getting more oxygen to muscles) How does CO2 affect Hb? CO2 carbamylates Hb, stabilizes T-state, promotes release of O2 How does BPG binding affect O2 affinity? BPG greatly reduces the affinity of Hb for O2. Important when at high altitudes. What mutation causes Sickle Cell Disease? Glu to Val at residue 6 of β subunits. What promotes sickling? Dehydration, exertion (hypoxia) Why are Hb levels low (50% normal)? Sickled cells are fragile and rupture easily. What concentration of CO is considered to be fatal? 50 - 60 % COHB is considered fatal How would you treat CO poisoning? with excess O2. 100% O2 is good, hyperbaric oxygen (3 atm) is better