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100 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the sources of energy for the RBC?
glucose- 90%-> lactate, 10% HMP shunt
What's in the membrane of the erythrocyte to allow for CO2 to be carried?
Cl-HCO3 antiport for the CO2
Define the following:
Anisocytosis- varying sizes
Poikilocytosis- varying shapes
What are the different types of leukocytes?
granulocytes- basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils
mononuclear cells- leukos, monocytes
What is the role of the basophil?
Mediates allergic reaction. <1% of all leukocytes. found in blood
Bilobate nucleus.

heparin (anticoagulant)
histamine (vasodilator)
leukotrienes (LTD-4)
What is the role of the mast cell?
Mediates allergic reaction.
Histamine, heparin
eosinophil chemotactic release factors. Bind IgE to membrane
Found it tissue
Found in type I hypersensitivity- Cromolyn Na prevents degranulation (asthma)
What is the role of an eo?
1-6% of all leukocytes.
Bilobate nucleus.
Packed with large eosinophilic granules of uniform size.
Defends against helminthic and protozoan infection
Phagocytic for Ag-Ab complexes
Makes histaminase and arylsulfatase
What are the products of a basophil?
What are the products of the eosinophil?
What is the role of the neutrophil?
Acute inflam cell 40-75% WBCs.
Large, spherical, azurophilic 1ry granules (lysosomes), hydrolytic enzymes, lysozyme, myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin
What is the role of the monocyte?
2-10% of leukos.
Kidney nucleus
Frosted glass cytoplasm
becomes macros in tissue
What is the role of the B lymphocyte?
Part of humoral immunity.
Arise from stem cells in marrow
matures in marrow
migrates to lymphoid tissue
white pulp
Ag-> plasma cells for Abs.
Also presents Ags through MHCII
What is teh role of the plasma cell?
Produces Abs
Off-center nucleus, clock face chromatin
abundant RER and well developed golgi
What is the role of T-cells?
Mediates cellular immune response. Originates stem cells in the bone marrow. Matures in the thymus. T cells differentiate into cytotoxic- CD8 MHCI
helper-CD4 MHCII
supressor T-cells
What is the role of the macrophage
phacocytizes bacteria, cell debris, and senescent red cells and scavenges damaged cells and tissues.
Long life in tissues. Macros differentiate
Activated by gamma-IFN
What is the role of the dendritic cell?
Professional APCs.
Express MHC II and Fc receptor on surface.
Induce 1ry Ab response.
Langerhans cells on skin.
What % of body weight is blood?
What makes up the blood?
55% plasma
45% formed elements (Hct)
What makes up the plasma?
91.5% H2O
7% proteins
Salts, lipids enzymes, vitamins
What makes up the proteins of plasma?
55% albumin
38% globulins
7% fibrinogen
What makes up the formed elements of blood?
What factors does protein C inactivate?
Va and VIIa
What factors does ATIII inactivate?
What activates it?
IIa, IXa, Xa, XIa
heparin activates
What is the role of tPA?
generates plasmin, which cleaves fibrin
What steps in the coag cascade require Ca and platelet phospholipid?
everything but XII and Thrombin.
What is the connection between the coag cascade and the kinin and complement pathways?
XII trigers prekallikrein to kallikrein
Kallikrein triggers Bradykinin formation and plasminogen to plasmin.
Plasminogen also triggers C3 to C3a
What are the effects of Bradykinin?
Increased vasodilation
Increased permeability
Increased pain
Define the following:
Hyper- increase # of cells, reversible
Meta- 1 adult type is replaced by another (smoker's)
Dysplasia- abnl growth w/ loss of orientation, shap, size (preneoplastic and reversible)
Anaplasia- abnl cells lacking differentiation; primitive cells of same tissue. W/ undiffed malig neoplasms. Giant cells?
Neoplasia- clonal prolif of cells that is uncontrolled and excessive
What are the stages of neoplastic progression?
Normal cells-> apical differentiation
Dysplasia- abnl prolif w/ loss of size, shape
In situ- Neoplastic cells w/ no invasion. High nuclear/ctoplasmic ration and clumped chromatin; Neoplastic cells take up the thickness
Invasive carcinoma- collagenases, hydrolases help cell invade. can mets if it reaches blood or lymph
Mets- Spread to distant organ; Seed and soil- seed=embolus, soil=target
What is the difference between the grade and the stage of a tumor?
Grade- Degree of cellular differentiation based on histo.

Stage- degree of spread. Stage is usually more prognostic.
What neoplasms are associated with Down's?
We ALL fall DOWN
What neoplasms are associated with Xeroderma pigmentosum and albinism?
Melanoma, basal, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
What neoplasm is associated with atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, and postsurgical gastric remnants?
Gastric adenocarcinoma
What is a choristoma?
normal tissue misplaced w/in another organ: pancreatic tissue in the stomach
What is desmoplasia?
tumor-induced prolif of non-neoplastic fibrous CT- breast, pancreas, prostate
Breakdown the steps to metastasis
1. growth and vascularization of 1ry tumor
2. invasiveness
3. transport and survival of tumor cells in the circulation
4. arrest of emboli- passage accross Baseement Membrane
5. Overcomign target tissuee defense mechanisms
6. successful metastatic implants
How do the common pathways for mets in carcinomas and sarcomas differ?
carcinomas- like to mets through lymph
sarcomas- like to mets through blood.
renal cell and hepatocellular carcinoma are exceptions
what cytokine triggers cachexia?
What tumor is the abl gene associated with?
What tumor is the c-myc gene associated with?
What tumor is the bcl-2 gene associated with?
Follicular and undiffed lymphomas
What tumor is the erb-B2gene associated with?
Breast, ovarian, gastric carcinomas
What tumor is the ras gene associated with?
Colon carcinoma
What tumor is the L-myc gene associated with?
Lung tumor
What tumor is the N-myc gene associated with?
What tumor is the ret gene associated with?
What neoplasm is associated with tuberous sclerosis?
astrocytoma and cardiac rhabdomyoma
What neoplasm is associated with actinic keratosis?
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
What neoplasm is associated with Barrett's esophagus
Esophageal adenocarcinoma
What neoplasm is associated with Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus
What neoplasm is associated with cirrhosis?
Hepatocellular carcinoma
What neoplasm is associated with ulcerative colitis
Colonic adenocarcinoma
What neoplasm is associated with Paget's disease of bone
2ry osteosarcoma and fibrosarcoma
What neoplasm is associated with Immunodeficiency
Malignant lymphomas
What neoplasm is associated with AIDS
What neoplasm is associated with autoimmune disease?
Benign and malignant thymomas
What neoplasm is associated with Acanthosis nigricans
Visceral malignancy
What neoplasm is associated with dysplastic nevus
Malignant melanoma
What genes are associated with Retinoblastoma?
13q, Rb
What gene is associated with osteosarcoma?
13q, Rb
What gene is associated with Breast cancer?
17q, 13q; BRCA1 and 2
What gene is p53?
What gene is associated with Melanoma?
9p; p16
What gene is associated with colorectal cancer?
What gene is associated with Wilm's tumor?
11q, WT1
What gene is associated with neurofibromatosis type 1?
NF1; 17q
What gene is associated with neurfibromatosis type 2?
NFA2; 22q
What gene is associated with pancreatic cancer?
DPC 18q
What gene is associated with colon cancer?
DCC; 18q
Whas is CEA a tumor marker for? (4)
colorectal and pancreatic;
also made by gastric and breast
What is alpha-fetoprotein a tumor marker for?
What is B-hCG a tumor marker for?
Hyadatidiform moles
Gestational trophoblastic tumors
What is CA-125 a tumor marker for?
Ovarian, malignant epithelial tumors
What is S-100 a tumor marker for?
Melanoma, neural tumors, astrocytoma
What is alkaline phosphatase a tumor marker for?
Mets to bone, obstructive biliary disease, Paget's
What is Bombesin a tumor marker for?
Neuroblastoma, lung and gastric cancer
What is TRAP a tumor marker for?
Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase
Hairy cell
What are Psammoma bodies?
What cancers are they seen in?
Laminated, concentric, calcific spherules seen in:
1. Papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid
2. Serous papillary cystadenocarcinoma of ovary
3. Meningioma
4. Malignant mesothelioma
What organ is affected by aflatoxin?
What organ is affected by Vinyl chloride?
Liver- angiosarcoma
What organ is affected by CCl4?
Liver- centrilobular necrosis, fatty change
What organ is affected by Nitrosamines?
Esophagus, stomach
What organ is affected by arsenic?
skin- squamous cell carcinoma
What organ is affected by Naphthalene dyes?
Bladder- transitional cell carcinoma
What organ is affected by Alkylating agents?
What two cancers can cause Lamber-Eaton?
Small cell
What tumor is associated with hyperuricemia and Gout?
Leukemia and Lymphoma
What tumors mets tothe brain?
Lots of Bad Stuff Kills Glia
Skin (melanoma)
Kidney (RCC)
What tumors mets to the liver?
Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver
What tumors mets to the bone?
P.T. Barnum Loves Kids
Breast and Prostate are most common
What cancers occur in men?
What kills them?
Prostate 32%
Lung 16%
colon and rectum 12%
Lung 33%
Prostate 13%
What cancers occur in women?
What kills them?
Breast 32%
Lung 13%
Colon and rectum 13%
Lung 23%- increasing
Breast 18%
What cancers are associated with hyperthyroidism?
Hyadatidiform moles, choriocarcinomas and some lung tumors
What tumors are associated with Hypoglycemia
Mesotheliomas, some sarcomas
What tumor is associated with polycythemia?
think EPO
what tumors are associated with hyperCa?
mets in bone
squamous cell
multiple myeloma
What tumor is associated with 8,14 translocation?
What tumor is associated with 14, 18 translocation?
What tumor is associated with 9,22 translocation?
What tumor is associated with 15,17 translocation?
PML (aml)