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39 Cards in this Set

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blood components
RBC, WBC, platelets - formed by red bone marrow
plasma
liquid portion of blood
proteins = clotting factors (prothrombin/fibrinogen), albumin (blood volume), globulins (carrier molecules for fat)
causes of anemia
lack of iron, hemoglobin, RBC
hypoxia stimulates...
kidneys to secrete erythropoietin = +rate of RBC production
folic acid/B12
needed for DNA snythesis to create RBC
B12 = extrinsic (from food); intrinsic factor from parietal cells allows B12 to be absorbed
RBC life
120 days
macrophages in spleen, liver, bone marrow phagocytize
iron back to red bone marrow
heme to billirubin for elimination (too high = jaundice)
RH+
d antigen is present
types of WBC
granular = neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils (from red bone marrow)
aggranular = lymphocytes/monocytes (red bone marrow to thymus)
monocytes
macrophages
neutrophils
phagocytize only pathogens
eosinophils
combat effects of histamine
basophils
release histamine
t cells
WBC
helper, suppressor, killer, memory
b cell
WBC
plasma cells (produce antibodies), memory cells
clotting and platelets (from red bone marrow)

platelet plug
type 1: release serotonin = vasoconstriction
platelet plug in capillaries - stick together to stop bleeding
platelets and clotting factors
type 2: platelet factors +clotting factors + tissue factor+Ca+ = prothrombinse
prothrombinase = prothrombin =>thrombin
thrombin = fibrinogen => fibrin
clot forms
lymph system
lymph vessels
lymph nodes/nodules
spleen
thymus
functions to return tissue fluid to maintain blood volume
lymph nodes
masses
fixed macrophages = phagocytize foreign materials
fixed plasma cells = antibodies
lymph nodules
small masses of lymph tissue found just under epithelium of mucous membranes (resp. digestive, urinary, reproductive)
ex: tonsils
spleen
produces fetal RBC
B-cells and T-cells, also fixed macrophages (pathogens, old RBC)
1/3 of body's platelets
thymus
atrophies with age
t-cells
petechiae
small, purple, hemorrhagic spots
ecchymoses
larger areas of discoloration from hemmorhage under the skin
purpura
hemorhage into the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs
blood tests for hematological disorders
CBC, PT (1.5-2 x for coumadin), INR (2-3x for coumadin), PTT (1.5-2x normal for heparin), thrombin clotting time, aggulination tests
bone marrow biopsy
physican takes from sternum, spinous processes of vertebrae, iliac crest
asceptic
lidocaine to numb skin/analgesic
observe site for bleeding following aspiration
lymphangiography
inject dye into lymphatic vessels of hand or foot (skin, urine, feces blue)
pressure dressing + immoblization
monitor for: swelling, circ status, changes in sensation
packed red blood cells
severe anemia or blood loss
frozen RBC
autotransfusion, prevention of febrile rx
platelets
thrombocytopenia
albumin
hypovolemia caused by hypoalbuminemia
fresh frozen plasma
clotting factors for bleeding disorders, volume replacement
safety measure in blood transfusion
proper identification of blood types
filter = remove harmful particles; also leukocytes/microaggregates
washed: remove plasma, -risk of febrile rx; leukocytes, CMV
warm = prevent hypothermia
administer blood
18 and 20 gauge needle (prevent hemolyis)
only NS to dilute/flush (prevent clots)
2 hours per unit (limit of 4 hours)
febrile rx
risk goes up with each unit of blood received
Signs: increased shaking, chills, headache, back pain
STOP transfusion
may restart, give acetaminophen
urticarial rx
minor allergic rx - hives
STOP
may restart, give benadryl
hemolytic rx
hemolysis of RBC - incompatible blood
back pain, chest pain, chills, fever, SOB, N/V, doom; shock hypotension, oliguria
STOP and stay with patient
keep vein open with NS but use new tube
anaphylactic rx
many transfusions/pregnancies
acute - only a few mL of blood will trigger
emergency situation
circulatory overload
chest pain, cough, frothy sputum, distended neck veins, crackles/wheezes, tachycardia
STOP, administer diuretics