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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Two different compartments of hematopoeisis:
myeloid and lympoid
Hematopoietic stem cells are ____ stem cells, meaning they tend to only lead to _____ cell formation.
adult, blood

Different mechanisms have allowed these ASCs to become cardiac muscle cells and endothelial cells.
Pluripotent stems cells are capable of three things:
1) be inert (almost completely resistant to chemo and radiation)
2) self renew
3) Differentiate and produce normal cells
Histological appearance of the pluripotent stem cells:
relatively non-descript, resemble lympocytes

we tell them apart by the proteins on their surface
Where else do we have hematopoietic stem cells besides BM?
peripheral blood stream -- hook up a patient to plasmaphoresis for sev hours to isolate the stem cells

umbilical cord blood-- harvest up to 190-200 ml w/o harm to baby, cord blood transplant can transplant an adult up to 220-240 pounds
How many stem cells would we have to give you to repopulate your BM if we lethally irradiated your BM?
1000 to 10000
Lymphoid lineage produces:

Myeloid lineage produces:
B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, and NK cells

RBCs, platelets, monocytes & macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What do Colony Stimulating Factors (CSFs) do?
Regulate hematopoeisis in terms of proliferation, differentiation, and maturation AND ARE VITALLY IMPORTANT FOR REGULATION OF THE FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITY OF MATURE CELLS
What are some characteristics of hematopoietic growth factors?
glycoproteins that are:
1) at very Low quantities
2) made Locally (except EPO)

Remember Low and Local
GM-CSF has effect on the development of what cells?
neutrophils, granulocytes, monocytes & macrophages, eosinophils, megakaryocytes, and erythroid cells

IL-3 acts on ______.
all stages of myeloid compartment (very similar to GM-CSF)
Lifespan for RBC?
for platelet?
for neutrophil?
120 days
10 days
6 hours
Erythropoeitin (EPO) a ____ ____ growth factor because it only acts on RBCs.
single unilineage
Where is EPO produced and under what circumstances?
peritubular interstitial cells in the kidney in response to hypoxemia

(a little produced in liver)
What are some circumstances that can produce hypoxemia (and therefore increase EPO)?
high altitude, CV/pulmonary problems, massive blood loss, variants of hemoglobin or O2 affinity
The EPO system fails when?
in kidney failure
What is the problem w/ athletes abusing EPO?
EPO drives up RBC count. When patient gest dehydrated, the blood viscosity increases and patient dies of stroke or sudden death.
G-CSF is a single-unilineage GF that works on the ____ series.
T/F: Extra growth factors can cause cancer.
False, after stopping injections their white cell goes back to normal
CSF for platelets
What is the benefit of giving G-CSF to a chemotherapy?
CANNOT PREVENT NEUTROPENIA, but if you start right after chemo the dip in neutrophils is not as steep and patients can recover faster
How do CSFs exert their effects on cells?
bind to cell surface receptor and exert a signal transduction that goes into cell and leads to transcription and proliferation
What is the genetic cause behing Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?
Philadelphia Chrosome: chromosomal translocation between chromosome 9 and 22; creates a fusion protein that intersects signalling pathway so that cell growth is always turned ON
What drug is used in CML to bind to the fusion protein and turn off the signalling pathway?
Imatinib (Gleevec)